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As I said this morning, I now will start to read the text of Hokke Tenhokke. As I said, I'd like to start from the story or conversation between Hyoinan, the sixth ancestor, and one of his monks, whose name was Fata. in Japanese, the whole tatsu. Because this story, or this conversation, shows a kind of a zen point of view to read or understand the sutras, especially in this case, the Lotus Sutra. So, Dogen discussed about the expressions of Lotus Sutra based on Huinnan's instruction. And yet, we need to be careful, Dogen is a very unique person.

[01:44]

Even though he used the same expression with Huinnan, Dogen's saying can be different from what Huinnan is saying. And this difference is important. Well, so let me read the conversation. It's quite long. So it's page 5, I'm sorry, paragraph 4. Among, first, just let me read the entire conversation. A monk named Fada, or Ho-Tatsu, once visited the assembly of Zen Master Da-Zhan, or Daikan, at Baolin, or Ho-Lin, temple on Mount Kaoshi, or Sokei, in the Shaotsu, or Shoshu.

[02:46]

In the parentheses, Japanese pronunciation. district of Gaodong in the Great Tang Dynasty. He boasted, and this monk, Hotatsu, boasted, I have already recited the Lotus Sutra 3,000 times. The ancestor said, even if you recite the sutra 10,000 times, if you do not grasp its meaning, you will not be able even to recognize your mistake. Our father said, this student is dull-witted. Until now, I have been reciting the sutra and simply repeating its words and characters. How could I possibly clarify its essential meaning?

[03:49]

Why don't you recite the sutra once, and I will elucidate it for you?" Father then began to recite the sutra. When he reached the chapter on skillful means, this is the second chapter, the ancestor said, stop. The fundamental point of this sutra is the causes and conditions of the Buddha's appearance in the world. Although the sutra expounds many parables, it does not go beyond this point. What are the causes and conditions? Simply the one great matter. The One Great Matter is nothing other than Buddha's insight, that is, opening, displaying, realizing, and entering the reality of all beings.

[05:02]

The One Great Matter is, naturally, the Buddha's insight. Those already endowed with this insight are already Buddhas. You must now believe that the Buddha's insight is nothing other than your own mind. The ancestor instructed again by composing a verse that says, the mind is in delusion, being turned by the Dharma flower. The mind is in realization, turning the Dharma flower. Unless we clarify ourselves, no matter how long we recite the sutra, we will contradict its meaning. The thought of no thought is right thought.

[06:08]

The thought of thought will go astray. When we consider neither being nor non-being, we ride endlessly in the white ox cart. Upon hearing the verse, father addressed the ancestor again, saying, the sutra says that even if all the great shuravakas and bodhisattvas thought and tried to fathom it with all their might, They could never grasp Buddha's wisdom. Now you are leading ordinary people to nothing other than a realization of their own minds and are calling it the Buddha's insight. Unless we have superior capacity, we cannot help doubting and slandering you.

[07:16]

Also, the sutra mentions three kinds of carriages. What is the difference between the great ox cart and the white ox cart? Master, please give me your explanation once more. The ancestor said, the meaning in the sutra is clear. you have confused yourself and fallen into doubt. When all those in the three vehicles fail to fathom the Buddha's wisdom, the problem lies in their measuring and discriminating. Even if they join effort, thinking, and summing together to their utmost, they will go further and further astray. from the Buddha's wisdom. The Buddha originally expounded the three vehicles only for the sake of ordinary people.

[08:27]

He didn't expound them for the sake of Buddhas. Some of them, not believing this principle, left their seat in the assembly. They did not know that while sitting in the white ox carriage, they were looking for the three kinds of carriages outside the gate. The sutra clearly states that there are neither two nor three carriages. Why then don't you realize it? The three kinds of carriages are expedient means because they were expounded in the past. The one vehicle is real because it belongs to the present. I am only trying to make you leave behind expedient means and return to the real.

[09:32]

When we return to reality, Reality is not a mere name. You should know that all beings, without exception, are rare treasures, and they all belong to you. Receiving and making use of them is up to you. It is neither the father's thought nor the thinking of the children, and there is no thought of using it. This is why it is called the Dharma Flower Sutra. From kalpa to kalpa, from day to night, even when we are not holding the sutra in our hands, there is no time when we are not reciting it. Having received this edification, Father jumped with joy and presented his verse of praise.

[10:42]

Three thousand recitations of the sutra have disappeared with a single phrase from Kawashi. Unless we clarify the meaning of the Buddha's appearance in the world, how can we end the madness accumulated over many lifetimes? The sutra made up the experience of sheep, deer, and ox carriage. There is one sentence missing after this. That is, to be well lifted up. to the higher level of meaning, early, middle, and late. I'll read it again. To be well. Maybe I should write down. to be well lifted up to the higher level of meaning.

[12:35]

bracket, early, middle, and late. Actually, this is not my translation. I cheated. I found one sentence is missing. I'm trying to find. someone's translation. And that translation was made by John McRae. Any questions? This is coming early? Early, middle, and late. This comes after the deer are not secured? Ah, yes. lift, l-i-s-t, lifted.

[13:38]

And the final line is who is aware, who is aware that even within the burning house, originally the Dharma King is there. Being presented this verse, the ancestors said, from now on you can be called the sutra reciting monk. This is the conversation they had. So basically, what the Sixth Ancestor Huinan said is, we should, the essential point of the Heart Sutra is one great cause, or ichi dai ji innen. Ichi dai ji innen. Ichi is one.

[14:50]

Dai is great. Ji is matter. And in is cause. And en is condition. One great matter or one great cause and condition. And this appeared in the second chapter of the Lotus Sutra, as I said, yesterday. That is the very basic point of the Lotus teaching. But I don't think I talked about this Ichida Ishii-nen yesterday. No, this is from the Heart Sutra. Shunen said the essential point of the Heart Sutra is Ichidai Jin'en. I'm sorry, Lotus Sutra. Lotus Sutra is one great matter or one great cause or purpose or reason.

[15:54]

Why Buddha, not only one Buddha, why all Buddhas appear in this world? So, you know, in the beginning Buddha said, you know, this reality of all beings can be fathomed only by Buddhas, no human beings. So he kind of rejected to explain. to Shaliputra. But Shaliputra continued to ask Buddha, please tell me, three times. So after that, Buddha started to, not yet, after that 5,000 people left, after those people left, Buddha started to teach. And that is about this one great mother. This is a phrase, rather than a sentence.

[17:00]

This is a part of the line. It's a phrase, not a sentence. I'm wondering, how do we interpret it within the verse, or within what's being said? What part does it go with? This is a part of the verse. Is it part of the first sentence? In other words, after ox carriages, would it go a column? Yeah. Yes, this is one sentence. Thank you. So, in the verse, the sutra made up the expedient of sheep, deer, and ox carriage, kama. Then, to be, and this part goes. Thank you. Okay. so Buddha started to teach. You know, the Buddha addressed Shariputra, such a wonderful dharma as this is only preached by the Buddha Tathagata on rare occasion, not always, just as the Udumbara flower

[18:22]

is seen but once in long period. You know Udonbara flower? It blooms flowers only once in 3,000 years. I don't know if such a flower really exists or not. Shariputra, believe me, all of you, in the Buddha's teaching, No word is false. Shariputra, the meaning of the laws which the Buddhas expound as opportunity serves, is difficult to understand. So again he said, difficult to understand. Wherefore, because I expound the dharmas by numberless, tactful ways, and with various reasonings and parabolic expressions.

[19:27]

Parabolic. These dharmas, teachings, cannot be understood by powers of thought or discrimination. Only the Buddhas can discern them. Again, he says, only Buddha can understand this. Therefore, because the Buddhas, the world-honored ones, only on account of the one very great cause, this is a translation from Ichi Daishi Innen, account of the one very great cause appear in the world, only one reason, Shaliputra, why do I say that the Buddhas, the world-honored ones, only on account of the one very great cause appear in the world?

[20:33]

Because the Buddhas, the world-honored ones, desire, so Buddha has desire, to cause all living beings to open their eyes. to the Buddha knowledge so that they may gain the pure mind. Therefore, they appear in the world. Because they desire to show all living beings the Buddha knowledge, they appear in the world. Because they desire to cause all living beings to apprehend the Buddha-knowledge, they appear in the world. Because they desire to cause all living beings to enter the way of the Buddha-knowledge, they appear in the world.

[21:38]

Shariputra, this is why it is only one very great cause that Buddhas appear in the world. Chapter 2, the tactfulness or skillful means. Page 59. In this passage, one great cause is Ichidaiji innen. And in this translation it says Buddha knowledge. That is... Busshi chi ken. Busshi is Buddha, of course, and chi is to know.

[22:43]

and canes to view or to see. And in this translation, this chiken is translated as knowledge. But I don't like this word, knowledge, for chiken, which is how to see and how to know. So I translate as insight. Insight might be better than knowledge. Knowledge is some kind of a collection of information. But this is how Buddha sees all beings. And what the Buddha said here is that one great matter, one great cause or reason why all Buddhas appeared in this world is to First, open.

[23:47]

Open is kai. And the second is ji. And the third is go. Fourth is niu. Kai is to open. And ji in this translation is shou. And goal is, in this translation, apprehend. But the usual translation is realize. And new is enter. So all Buddhas appear in this world to open Buddha's insight. Please. To see and to know.

[24:54]

Is the kan the same as kan? No. That's different? Different. Different kan. This is kan in kanzeon. But this is chi-ken. And Sanskrit word for chi-ken is darshana. Darshana? Yeah. Tathagata jnana. Jñāna dārśana. This is Buddha's way of viewing things and understanding how things really are. Jñāna dārśana is the Sanskrit word for jīten, Buddha's insight. So this is how Buddha sees the reality of all beings. So, all Buddhas appear in this world to open this Buddha's darshanan, or Buddha's insight to all beings.

[26:01]

And Ji is show or point out, this is how Buddha sees. And allow or enable all beings to realize Buddha's darshanan. and also allowed or enabled all beings to enter the path of Buddha's darshan. That is only the reason all Buddhas appeared in this world. And, you know, as Buddha Shakyamuni said many times, this Buddha's darshan or Buddha's insight can be penetrated or fathomed only by Buddhas. So here is a contradiction. First, Buddha said this true reality of all beings can be fathomed only by Buddhas, together with Buddhas.

[27:06]

But Buddha has desire. to open and point out and allow all beings to realize and enter the Buddha's darshan. This is Buddha's sickness. This is Buddha's delusion. Buddha tries... delusion. Desires. Buddha tries to do something impossible. Buddha's view or Buddha's insight or Buddha's insight to see the reality of all beings cannot be seen or fathomed by our thinking and cannot be expressed using words and letters because they are dualistic. All language is dualistic. Even when we say non-duality, that is dualistic with duality.

[28:11]

So no word can be beyond duality. So to express this reality beyond duality, we have to shut our mouth and sit facing the wall. That is the only way to express this reality of all beings. But somehow Buddha, all Buddhas have desire to enable all living beings to see the same way, to see the things same way with Buddhas. So, you know, Buddha's desire is to desire something it's not possible. So this is the problem. Buddha's problem. And Bodhisattva's problem. You know, the problem means in the Vimalakirti Sutra.

[29:16]

Vimalakirti was sick. That's why Shakyamuni asked Manjushri and other Bodhisattvas to visit him. So this sickness, Vimalakirti's sickness, is Buddha's sickness. Buddha wanted to teach something which cannot be taught. But all Buddhas appeared in this world to do this impossible work. That is what this means. All Buddhas appeared in this world to enable us, living beings, to see this true reality of all beings that cannot be fathomed by any living beings, any human beings, using our intellect. How can we see, or how can we

[30:18]

realize and enter the way of Buddha's insight and see the reality as it is. How is it possible? It's really a difficult task. But that was the only reason all the Buddhas appeared in this world. That is basically what Hinan said. This is the essence of the Lotus Sutra, the most important point of the Lotus Sutra. And another important thing Huinan said is... So first he said, what are the causes and conditions? He said that is one great matter. And this one great matter is Buddha's insight or Buddha's darshan.

[31:23]

And that is opening, displaying, I translate this G as display, to display. Open, display, realize, and entering. In my understanding, first to opening and displaying is what Buddha does. And realize and emphasize what we, or human beings, or living beings, do. So this is a kind of interaction between Buddha and living beings. the insight and try to show this is it. And we realize what it is and we enter the way or path of Buddha's darshan.

[32:35]

So here, first Buddha said it's not possible. Only Buddha can do this. But now he said, Buddha can do this. Buddha can open and display or show, and we can realize and enter. Yes, as I said yesterday, you know, that has a tensacheness. Then suchness, as I said, is an expression of interconnectedness, interdependent origination. And next thing Hyo Inan said is, those already endowed with this insight are already Buddhas.

[33:41]

So, if we are endowed, we have this Buddha's Darussalam, we are Buddhists. And, finally, his conclusion is, you must now believe that Buddha's insight is nothing other than your own mind. This is a kind of interesting thing. Your own mind is Nanji, ji, shi. Nanji is you, and ji is self, and shi is mind. So he said, Buddha darshanam is simply our mind, our mind, or your mind.

[34:47]

You, I think so. My mind, not other people's mind. It's your mind. So, to see or to realize and enter Buddha's insight, is to realize our own mind and actually express it. This is our mind. So what is this mind? Is the next question, please. Do you have something to say? I was going to quote Okamoto Roshi, that mind can be either vichinana or pre-daya. That is what I'm going to talk about next. Chitta wa furidaya. Chitta is a thinking mind. And furidaya is not a thinking mind.

[36:00]

This is difficult. This is Sanskrit for Inanna, Darshana? Vijnana. J-N-A-N-A. Vijnana. So now we have to think, what is mind? And this is very interesting and important, and yet very difficult. Because this word, mind or shin, in Chinese and Japanese, is used in many different meanings. You know, but as a Buddhist term, this shin, Chinese word shin, or Japanese kokoro, is used basically in translation of two Sanskrit words.

[37:04]

One is chitta. Another is hridaya. And chitta is a... chitta is a thinking mind. You know, body chitta is chitta in body chitta. Thought of awakening. So this chitta is thinking mind. But this furidaya, literally as a word, means heart. as a part of our body, heart. H-R. I'm sorry. H-R. [...]

[38:11]

H-R. [...] H-R So this mind, the mind of the self, is the thinking mind or the heart. And in Chinese Buddhism, this Chitta is understood as En, Ryo, Shin. Ryo is thinking. And En is object. Thinking about the object. But heart is another problem.

[39:11]

This is not a thinking mind. And another way to kind of a distinction, make distinction, between these two is mind, citta, mind-shin as Ryoji-shin is called Ji-shin. Ji is phenomena. Ji, phenomena. And Frida is called Ri-shin. Li is principle. Principle. Yeah, Ji and Li. Ji is concrete, phenomenal thinking. And Li is not... So, Li, Jishin, or Shita, is a function of our psychology.

[40:15]

How our mind works. But, Furidaya is not our psychology. Then, what is this we? I mean, Lee, Shin, or Fridaya. Please. For Western people, I think heart has a connotation of emotion and various things. I don't know what, but I don't, is that I don't think so. It has nothing to do with our thinking or emotion. Yeah, the Chinese people translated both Chitta and Fridaya with this one word, Shin.

[41:20]

That is a source of confusion for American people. You know, Sanskrit or Indian language and English or European languages originally the same group, same family. So, you know, if you translate Chitta and Fredaya from Sanskrit to English, there's no confusion. You know, Chitta is mind, and Fredaya is heart. But Chinese people translate these two words into one word, Shin. Because, not only Chinese, but we Japanese also, we think, we think, we think. We think, thinking is happening in our heart, not in our head. Please. I remember at a getaway that I did with you a number of years ago, you had a picture, and you could see it either as a beautiful

[42:30]

I don't think so. These two are not positive part or negative part. Mind can be good or bad. Mind can think something very good and something very bad. So this mind, or chitta, or thinking, does not necessarily be a negative thing. Please? Negative. So then you're saying Rishen is chitta, and Rishen is... Is a free dyer. Okay. So thinking about principles? This is considered as another name. Another name of Shinnyo. Shinnyo is true Tathata.

[43:41]

True Tathata. Tathata? The reality is as it is. Vastness or Suchness. So, Freedaya is the essential reality. It's not our thinking. Shinryo? Shinryo, yes. Just to clarify, judaya doesn't mean feelings. Judaya does not mean feelings. No. In this case. Original meaning is our heart. So, heart is moving and has some function. But when Frida is used as a Buddhist term, it has nothing to do with, as a part of our body. Even in the case of Prajnaparamita Fridaya Sutra, shin, gyo, this shin means essence.

[44:44]

Furidaya Sutra means essence. That means, you know, Mahaprajna Paramita Sutras are huge sutras, huge collection of sutras. But Hatha Sutra is tiny, one of the shortest sutras. But within this shortest sutra, essence of this entire, it has 600 volumes of Prajna Paramita is included. That is what the essence, or in this case, Fridaya, means. So, the Heart Sutra cannot be translated as a Mind Sutra. Please? Is it the same meaning of the word mind that the ancestors said, this mind is Buddha? Yeah, that is what I'm going to talk about. Please? So, you said, peaceful mind, is this peaceful like a Principle of the universe is the reality of all beings.

[45:51]

How things are. Dogen, please. That is one interpretation. But there are many things to discuss about this. What is the essence of our mind, the essence of ourselves. Lotus Sutra is originally written in Sanskrit. Both those words, is that how that works? I mean, did both those words, chitta and hrudaya, appear in the Lotus Sutra as mine? I'm just kidding.

[46:54]

I'm not sure if chitta or hrudaya appeared in the Lotus Sutra. I'm not pretty sure. They are. They appeared. And Chinese translators, such as Kumarajiva, translate both words as shin, into shin. So, fat is sin. And this is an important topic in any Buddhist teachings. So, Dogen wrote several chapters of Shobugenzo about this sin. And in one fascicle within Shobugenzo, Dogen discussed about sin. is Soku Shin Zei Butsu. That is, the mind is itself Buddha. Mind is itself Buddha. Or mind itself is Buddha. Soku Shin Zei

[48:11]

Goods. Sokuzei is a word used in Shikisokuzei-ku. Shiki is form and Sokuzei-ku is emptiness. So this Shin is itself Buddha. is the expression. This is a very famous and important expression coined by a great Zen master, Mazu, or Baso. He is a contemporary of Sekito Kisen, in our lineage, who composed Sandokai. So Dogen Zenji shikisoku zei ku. That is said in the Heart Sutra. What is the definition of being whole-hearted?

[49:29]

Single-minded. No separation. Entire body and mind is doing something completely. There is no division or separation. That is what the whole heart is doing. Anyway, the problem is there is not only one teaching or one definition about what mind or heart or Shin is. That's why Dogen has to discuss what this Sokushin Zebutsu means. What is the mind that is Buddha? So let me read, introduce what Dogen discussed. And he introduced one of the mistaken understandings of Shin.

[50:29]

Let's see, where is it? And this is, I think this is very important point of Dogen's teaching. Shobo genzo sokushin zebut, the mind is itself Buddha. Dogen says, what Buddhas and ancestors, without any exceptions, have been maintaining and entrusting is simply mind itself is Buddha. So, sokushinzebutsu is a very important expression. And yet, in India, this expression, mind itself is Buddha, does not appear. It was heard for the first time in China.

[51:39]

So in Indian Buddhism there is no such expression. Only in China and only in Zen teaching this expression is created. Actually by the Zen master Baso or Mazu. But because many students fail to correctly understand this expression, they do not continue to transmit its true meaning. Hold a mistake and make another mistake. Because they do not transmit its true meaning, they fall into the path of non-Buddhist. So he's saying this is very dangerous. This is very important, essential teaching of Buddha's and ancestors' tradition.

[52:43]

But if we make one mistake, we become non-Buddhist. Upon hearing this expression, mind itself, many foolish people, like this word foolish people, many foolish people consider that the thinking and sensing mind, that is chitta. This is shobo genzo, so it's not there. I'm sorry. The thinking and sensing mind that has not yet aroused body-mind is itself Buddha. So he said the mistake is if we think this mind in this expression is our thinking mind before we arouse bodhicitta.

[53:51]

That means before we start to practice, study Dharma and practice, that means our usual way of thinking, discriminating mind. If we think this discriminating thinking mind is Buddha, then that is complete misunderstanding of this teaching. I'm sorry. He's so complicated. Gogen is so complicated. In a different fascicle, he said, we allow bodhicitta by discriminating mind. To allow bodhicitta, we need to use discriminating mind. Yeah, because we have to think.

[54:54]

So that is a problem of human beings. So human... well, I have to go. This mistake is caused because such people have not yet met a true teacher. What is meant by saying to become a non-Buddhist is that there was a non-Buddhist practitioner in India, whose name was Seneca. Seneca is a non-Buddhist person who had a kind of discussion with Buddha about Atman. And what this person, Seneca, said was, His view was the Great Way, the Great Way exists within our own body.

[56:09]

The Great Way, Great Awakening, exists within our own body at this present moment. It is easy to know what it is like. What this means is that It distinguishes, so this mind, according to Seneca, distinguishes suffering from pleasure, naturally recognizes cold from warmth, and clearly knows pain and itchiness. That kind of sensing and knowing what is happening. That kind of function of our mind. And Seneca continued, it is not obstructed by myriad things. Obstructed by myriad things, this can exist and function without being influenced by myriad or dharmas.

[57:19]

It is not restricted by any objects in the circumstances. So this is an independent being. Things are coming and going. Objects are arising and perishing. But the spiritual intelligence, this person called this mind spiritual intelligence. This is my translation of Reiichi. Rei is spiritual and Chi is to know, same Chi, some function to know something. So he called this a spiritual intelligence. Always exists and never changes. So this Shin, according to Seneca, never changes.

[58:27]

and it functions without being influenced by the circumstances. This spiritual intelligence pervades everywhere. It doesn't stay in one fixed particular place. There is no separation or difference whether we are ordinary beings or sages. That means where we are deluded human beings, we are enlightened sages. This spiritual intelligence doesn't change. It's always the same. So it has a permanent nature. Within it, the empty flowers of delusive things might appear temporarily. So within this, some kind of image comes and goes.

[59:30]

However, because in a moment, when the wisdom that corresponds to it appears, those things will perish. The object will disappear. And the spiritual intelligence, that is, this is the original nature. original nature is honshou. Maybe I don't need to write. Doesn't alone clearly exist permanently in quietness. So this mind, another name is reichi or spiritual intelligence, doesn't change and always exists. Even when the bodily form is broken, our body is broken, the spiritual intelligence is never destroyed.

[60:39]

That means even when we die, this intelligence is never destroyed. It gets out, gets out of the body. So when we die and the five skandhas disperse, this spiritual intelligence leaves this body and goes somewhere else. For example, it is like when a house is burned, By a fire, the owner of the house leaves the dwelling. So this mind or intelligence is like an owner of a house. When the house is burned, the owner can leave and buy a new house. Or like an owner of a car. When the car is broken down, the owner can buy a new car. This is how they understood this sin or mind or spiritual intelligence.

[61:49]

That is how we can be reborn. When we die, these five skandhas disperse. This intelligence moves to another body. Yeah, this is not a Buddhist teaching. So, Fat Dogen said, if we understand the mind in this way, we become non-Buddhist. So, I'm talking about non-Buddhist teaching. So, don't believe what Fat Dogen said. That is the point. If there's no such things, is reincarnation possible or not? He's complicated.

[62:54]

So he said, you know, this kind of reincarnation is not possible because there's no such things. So this is another name of Atman. and what Buddha taught is an Atman. There are no such things. So this is not only Dogen's question, but we need to ask to the Buddha. If there is no Atman, what is transmigrated? And do you know Buddha's answer? Shut your mouth. Don't ask me. I don't know. Here he said there's no such intelligence, so there's no such things happens. When our body dead, our mind or something within the essence of ourself move to another body.

[63:59]

He clearly said there's no such essence. And yet he didn't negate reincarnation. How can these two get together? This is one of the most difficult questions, I think, within the history of Buddhism. Many people have questions. And I think many teachers explained how transmigration is possible without Atman. But I think none of them are so successful. I'm not sure. Let me continue. So, Dogen described one of the philosophies of Indian philosophy about this scene, and Dogen said, that is not Buddhism.

[65:13]

But he continued, it is clear and yet mystical. This is called the nature of the awakened one. or otherwise. It is called the Buddha. It is named enlightenment. So not such kind of permanent spiritual intelligence called sin is enlightenment. It is equally and fully equipped with both self and others. So everyone has it. It penetrates both the deluded and the enlightened. So all living beings have this scene. No matter in what kind of conditions those myriad things and all objects may be,

[66:22]

The spiritual intelligence is neither together with both objects nor identical with those things. It is permanent within many kalpas, so it continues to be without making any changes for many kalpas, changing the body. All the objects existing now as the environment also can be called real because it means each object is a place where the spiritual intelligence abides. They are real things because they are parts of the conditions arising from the true nature. So this is called true nature. Even though it is so, both things are not permanent in the same way as a spiritual intelligence.

[67:31]

Those things mean things beside this spiritual intelligence are not permanent. Because they exist and perish. They appear and disappear. Arise and perish. That means impermanent. But this shin, or spiritual intelligence, is permanent. It is also called the true self. True self is shin-ga. Ga is self. or the source of enlightenment, the original nature, or the original essence. To realize such original nature, to realize such a mind, permanent mind, is called to return to the permanent dwelling.

[68:45]

And such a person who has realized the original nature is called the great being who has returned to the truth. After that, such a person never transmigrates within the cycle of life and death. So, when we realize this essence, we become free from transmigration of life and death. but realizes and enters the ocean of the nature that has no arising and no perishing. So when we realize this mind, we return to the original nature and we become enlightened. There is no truth other than this. They say that unless the true nature has not yet been revealed, so until this scene, our mind, our spiritual intelligence is revealed, the three worlds and the six realms arise ceaselessly.

[70:02]

That means six realms within samsara is always there and we always transmigrate. But once we realize this essential nature, then we are released from that transmigration. And Dogen concludes, such is nothing other than the view of the non-Buddhist Seneca. So this is a teaching about the mind, according to this person, Seneca. And so this is non-Buddhist. And Dogen, in Shobo Genzo Sokushin Zebutu, he introduced one Zen master's conversation with another monk. And this Zen master's name is Nanyan. or in Japanese, Nan-Yo-E-Chu.

[71:29]

Nan-Yo-E-Chu was one of the disciples of the sixth ancestor, Hui-Nan. So this has a connection between what Dogen is discussing here. Nanyo Echu was Huinan's disciple, direct disciple. And he was a very well-known, famous teacher. You know, after Huinan died, this person, Nanyo Echu, lived in a morass, not in a morass, but in the mountains for 40 years, and never left the mountains. But after 40 years, that means after he became quite old, The emperor invited him to be the teacher of the emperor. So he became emperor's teacher, actually two or three emperor's teacher. So he was very well known among Huinan's disciples.

[72:35]

And he is a very important person for Dogen. That is why he, Dogen, quotes this Nanyo Echu's conversation here. Yes, Sokushin Zenbutsu. One monk visited Nanyo Echu. And this monk came from the south. You know, Huinan's school was called Southern School. So Huinan's descendants lived in the south. Many of them. So this monk came from one of the monasteries where Huinan's descendants

[73:39]

was the teacher. But anyway, because this monk came from the south, Nanyo Echu asked, what kind of teachers are there in the south? The monk said, there are many teachers. Nanyo Echu said, how do they instruct people? The monk said, Those teachers there, in the South, directly point out to the student that mind itself is Buddha. So this is Sokushin Zebutsu, the teaching of the South, people in the South, I mean teachers in the South. Buddha means awakening. So Buddha is not a person, but Buddha is awakening itself.

[74:45]

Now, you are already fully endowed with the nature that sees, hears, senses and knows. So this nature, we are all endowed with this nature that sees, hears, senses and knows. This nature is able to raise the eyebrow. So this nature uses the eyebrow and moves the eyebrow. And blink one's eyes to go and to do actions. It pervades your entire body. So it's not a particular part of our body. It pervades the entire body and allows all parts of our body to function. including our mind. When something touches your head, your head knows it.

[75:52]

When something touches your feet, your feet knows it. Therefore, it is called all-pervading intelligence. Apart from this function of this intelligence, There is no Buddha at all. So this is Buddha. This is what Shin, or mind, means in this teaching. Zen Buddhist teaching. In the South. I don't think so. It's not a thinking mind. It's some kind of function of our body and mind that allows all parts of our body to work.

[77:00]

So this body has arising and perishing. The mind nature has never arising or perishing. So this mind nature never arises nor perishes. That means this is not impermanent. When the body arises or perishes, it is like a dragon changed its bone. When a snake softens its skin. Or when a person leaves an old house. So, same kind of idea with the Atman by Seneca. The body is impermanent. But the nature is permanent. So this mind nature is permanent. Body is impermanent. Roughly speaking, this monk said, roughly speaking, what is taught in the South is like this.

[78:16]

Then Echu said, If so, if that is what is taught in the South, their view is not different from the one of the non-Buddhist Seneca. So Nanyuechi said, the teaching in the South, Zen teaching in the South is not Buddhist. They are teaching the same with Seneca. He said, So, 918 tries to explain the teaching of Seneca. Dogen already did, so I skip over this part. Maybe it's not so long, so maybe I can read it. He said that within our own body there is one divine nature, divine nature.

[79:24]

This nature is able to sense pain and itchiness. When the body disintegrates, the spirit leaves it, just as if when a house is burned, the owner leaves it. The house is impermanent, but the owner is permanent. Hi.

[82:19]

Okay, I continue. Naio Echi said, They collect 300 to 500 people in the assemblies. They grace the Milky Way and said, this is the essential teaching of the South. They hold, Echu continues, they hold the Platform Sutra. Platform Sutra of Echu's teacher, Huinan. They hold the Platform Sutra and make changes to it. adding stories in a popular vein, and expurgating the sacred meanings. Thus, they will make followers in later generations bewildered.

[83:28]

Followers? Followers. Followers. Followers. Practitioners. Sorry. How can this be called authentic teaching? So Echu was very critical against this teaching in the South. He said, how pitiful. The essential teaching of our lineage has been lost. So this is a very serious problem for this person, who is a direct If the subject of seeing, hearing, sensing, and knowing were Buddha nature, Vimalakirti would not have said the Dharma is apart from seeing, hearing, sensing, and knowing.

[84:37]

If we practice seeing, hearing, sensing, and knowing, that means this mind is a subject of those functions. It is not seeking the Dharma. So this kind of teaching and practice has nothing to do with the Dharma. So this is one understanding of mind in China within Zen tradition. And one of the disciples of Huinan said, you know, they destroyed Huinan's teachings. Yes, because of this. He followed, he respected and followed Nanyo Echu's teachings. And because of this, Dogen said Platform Sutra is not authentic.

[85:51]

Then, what is the mind? At least according to Huinan, I'm not Huinan, but Echu, Huizong. You know, this conversation between Echu and this monk from South appeared in a very long conversation. And this long conversation is recorded in Volume 29 of the Record of Transmission of Lamp. or Dharma Lamp, that is Keitoku Dento Roku. You know, the first 27 volumes of Keitoku Dento Roku is a collection of short sayings of, it's said, 1,700 Zen masters.

[86:55]

So all the conversations are pretty short. But in this 28th volume, this text collects several famous Zen masters' longer sayings. And Nanyo Echo is the first one. And this conversation is part of a very long conversation with this same monk. So, when H.U. criticized the teaching of the South, the monk, I don't have translation of this long conversation, but this monk from the South said, then, what is the mind of ancient Buddha? What is the mind of ancient Buddha in your teaching, if that is mistaken? Then, what Nanyo Echu said was, the mind of ancient Buddha is shouhekigaryaku.

[88:03]

What is shouhekigaryaku? Fences, walls, pebbles, and tiles. That is the mind. Do you see the difference? Mind is fences, walls, stones, pebbles, and tiles. That is a mind. So it's very different. Yeah. Yes, that is my understanding. That means No, this mind, according to Echu, is not something in our body and mind, and permanent, and subject of sensing and thinking.

[89:08]

It's not a part of this body and mind. But he said, mind is Fences, walls, pebbles, stone and pebbles. That means nothing special. It means each and everything. We also have three trees and two grasses. From someone else, I mean, everyone will pull in, I think, according to what their mystery is. That is so ordinary, tiles, petals, but grasses and trees, to me, point to something more. Well, I'm not sure. I think I'll talk about that later. So please wait. Is the summer school associated with the Rinzai tradition?

[90:09]

We don't have a chance to know southern or northern ancestors. No. I mean, that is before the division of five schools. You know, Huinan's disciple, Nanyo Echi was one of Huinan's disciples. Another disciple of Huinan was in our lineage, Seigen Ryoshi. And Seigen's disciple was Sekito. And another disciple of Hyoinan was Nangaku Ejo. Nangaku Ejo's disciple was Baso Doitsu, or Maazu Daoi. And Maazu's school was really big and in the south. And from Nangaku and Baso's lineage, Rinzai

[91:11]

and Yōshū, two schools appeared. And from Seigen-gyōshi and Sekitō's lineage, Sōtō, Unmon, and Hōgen, those three schools appeared. So, what they are talking is much earlier than such separation into five schools. But this teaching in the South has connection with Rinzai. That is true. That is my thinking, so don't believe me. Do you have a question? No, I decided I didn't. Okay. Well, it's 4.45. I have to talk about this more. So I'll continue tomorrow morning. I think this is a really important point.

[92:14]

What mind means in Dogen's teaching. Otherwise we don't really understand. Not only this first group. And not only for this expression. Mind is deluded. We are turned by the Dharma flower. And when the mind is enlightened, real enlightened, we turn the Dharma flower. So what this mind means, I think is really important. So I'll continue tomorrow morning.

[92:50]