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Good morning, everyone. I'm sorry I made a mistake. I forget I don't need to wear an orchestra. I always forget something these days. Yesterday afternoon I talked about the important point of the Lotus Sutra. But I I talked only half of it. That means Lotus Sutra has 28 chapters. And I only talked on the first 14. So the first 14 is about one week. one Buddha vehicle. There are no two or three vehicles. That means everyone, including Shravaka or monks and lay people, all those are within this one vehicle.


And the direction this vehicle is going is Buddhahood. So there is no different nirvana. all beings, including monks and lay people, practice, go towards the Buddhahood. There's no other ways. But within this one vehicle, of course there are some people are monks, some people are lay people, and they are different, but difference is okay. That is a major point in the first half. First half is called, traditionally called Shaku-mon or Seki-mon. And second half is called Hon-mon.


Hon means origin, or original, or truth, or real. And shaku literally means trace, or kind of a manifestation. That means this original thing manifests within time and space as something concrete or actual. And the center of the teaching within this second half is chapter 16, entitled Nyōrai Jūryōhon, the lifespan of the Tathagata. And what basically that chapter says is


You know, we think Shakyamuni was born in India about 2,500 years ago as a prince of a small kingdom. And yet he left his home, his palace, and became a spiritual practitioner. And after a certain period of practice he experienced awakening and he became Buddha. And after that he taught Dharma for about 40 years. And he died when he was about 80 years old. That was the Buddha appeared within the history, means within time and space. But this chapter 16 says that is another upaya, another skillful means. Actually, what the Sutra says is, before Chapter 16 started, Chapter 15, that is the first of the second half, is entitled


Jūchi yūshutsu hon. Jūchi yūshutsu hon means from the earth, you know, numberless, countless voice sattva appeared. And Shakyamuni said, these are my disciples, my students. All of those voice sattvas are my students. I taught them. But I think that was I forget the name of the bodhisattva. The bodhisattva asked another question. You know, Shakyamuni, when he was preaching the Lotus Sutra on the Vulture Peak, probably he was around 70, not yet entering the nirvana, but he was quite old. So people thought Shakyamuni had been teaching only 40 years after he attained enlightenment. But those numberless bodhisattvas spring out from the earth, are much older.


And the numberless, not big number, numberless people, bodhisattvas, appeared. And Shakyamuni said, these are my disciples. I have been teaching all those bodhisattvas. Then the Bodhisattva had a question. You know, Shakyamuni was still 70 years old and he had been teaching only 40 years. Why he could have such a great and all experienced Bodhisattvas? It is like a father is young, and children are so old. I don't understand." So, the Bodhisattva asked Shakyamuni, why such a thing can be true?


Then, Shakyamuni started to talk about his life span. And, the sutra says, all the worlds of gods, men, and asuras consider, now has Shakyamuni Buddha come forth from the palace of the Shakya clan, as a prince of Shakya kingdom, and seated at the training place of enlightenment. I don't think this training place is a correct translation. I think the original word for this is dojo. Do is way, and jo is place. But in modern Japanese, dojo means place for practice.


like a dojo for judo or karate or that kind of martial art. They call the practice place as dojo. But the original meaning of this word, do, place of dao, means, in this case, this dao means enlightenment. So in this translation, I don't think we need training. We don't need the word training. training, so it can be only seated at the place of enlightenment. This Dao is a translation of the Sanskrit word, Bodhi, place of Bodhi awakening. Anyway, so he attained awakening under the Bodhi tree. That is the place of awakening. Not far from the city of Gaya, so here, I had awakening in Buddha Gaya today, has attained perfect enlightenment.


That is what commonly people think. But my good sons, since I veritably became Buddha, They have passed infinite, boundless, hundreds of thousands of myriad of copies of Nayutas of Kalpas. That means longer than forever. So this means Shakyamuni was not the person, not simply the person who was born in India as a prince, of Shakyakugan, and taught 40 years, and died at 80 years old. So he has been Buddha forever, from the beginningless beginning. And he said, a little later, he said, during this time,


Since he attained Buddhahood, beginningless beginning, he said, during this time, I have ever spoken of myself. I have ever spoken of myself as the Buddha, burning light, and other Buddhas. This Buddha, burning light, is Dipankara. The meaning of Dipankara is burning light, in Japanese, nen-to-gutsu. So, with this Buddha, you know, the original Bodhisattva who later became Shakyamuni, Sumedha, allows bodhicitta. So, you know, Sumedha's allowing bodhicitta and practice


you know, more than 500 lifetimes, and born as a prince of Shakyamuni. This process is all part of this eternal Shakyamuni's talk. So, I have ever spoken of myself as the Buddha burning light, or Vipankara. This includes Sumedha and the process of his practice as Bodhisattva for 500 lifetimes. This is spoken of this eternal Shakyamuni about himself. That means all those stories, or even the histories, after Buddha was born in this earth, in India. Those are the manifestation or expression of this eternal Shakyamuni.


Thus have I tactfully, or as a skillful means, described them all. So those are all happening as an expression of eternal Shakyamuni. So, you know, yesterday I talked about the reality of all beings. And we, all Buddhas, bodhisattvas, and all beings, are living in this network of interdependent origination. Not only Shakyamuni as a Buddha, but all beings, including, you know, flowers, trees, or everything else, are expression of Shakyamuni's eternal life. And this is called Dharma body.


At the time when the Lotus Sutra was made, you know, now we think there are three kinds of Buddha bodies. That is, Dharma body, Dharmakaya, Sambhogakaya, and Nirmanakaya. But when the Lotus Sutra was made, the concept of Sambhogakaya did not exist. Only Nirvanakaya, that is actual Shakyamuni as a human being, and Dharmakaya. And originally, this Dharmakaya means what Buddha taught. That is also called Dharma. Nirmanakaya? No, Dharmakaya. So when Shakyamuni died, passed away, you know, his disciples and students lost the Buddha as a rupa body, or Nirmanakaya.


Shakyamuni's five skandhas disappeared. you know, that is a serious problem. They lost the Buddha, one of the three treasures of Buddhism, and they don't think, they didn't think another person could be second Buddha, take over the Buddha's position. Buddha was only one. Shakyamuni was so special. So, but they want to, not want to, but they need to find what is Buddha after he died. After Shakyamuni as a human being passed away, what is Buddha? And they remembered that before he died, Shakyamuni said, If you see the Dharma, you see me.


This Dharma is Buddha's teaching, what Buddha taught. When we remember, study, remember and practice what Buddha taught, then Buddha is there. That is the origin of the concept of Dharma body. So in the Sutra about the Buddha's last teaching, I don't know when this particular sutra was made, but this sutra in Japan is called Yui Kyōgyō, or Buddha's Last Teaching, or Final Discourse. This sutra is about Buddha's death, or entering nirvana. So Buddha was dying. And this is the final teaching before he died.


One thing Buddha said is about, of course, about impermanence. Buddha said, don't be sad. Even if I live forever, it doesn't matter. I have taught everything I need to teach. And he said, after his death, from now on, you should practice what I taught. If you practice my teaching, then, Shakyamuni said, the indestructible Dharmakaya, always present within their monk's practice. So, when monks study, understand, and practice, actually practice what Buddha taught, then Buddha's Dharma body is always present.


To me, this is very interesting. teaching. That means if monks don't study Dharma and don't practice what Buddha taught, then Buddha's Dharma body is not present. So is Buddha's Dharma body impermanent or permanent? It's said indestructible and always present. And yet, if we practice what Buddha taught, This is a really interesting question. Is such a Dharma body really permanent or not? It's not permanent. It's appeared only within our practice. And yet, through our practice, Buddha's eternal life is manifest there. So is Buddha's life really eternal or not?


It's up to our practice. And yet, when we practice, Buddha's eternal life, or Dharmakaya, always manifests. So there's no time that even if we practice, Buddha's Dharma body doesn't manifest. I think this is a really interesting and important question when we try to understand Dogen's idea of practice and realization are one. When we practice, realization is already there. It means Buddha's Dharma body manifests within our practice. So whenever we really practice wholeheartedly, following Shakyamuni's teaching, Buddha's Dharma body is always there. And yet, if we don't practice, then where is Dharma body?


I have no answer. But this is a good question. Well, so that is the main point. Buddha's eternal life. That means all the process of Shakyamuni's practice as Bodhisattva is an expression of Buddha's eternal life of Shakyamuni. And the important point when we study Dogen, not only Dogen, but Mahayana Buddhism is not only Shakyamuni's practice as a bodhisattva, but we are at this moment still existing within this network of interdependent origination. That means we are living within Buddha's eternal life. That's why when we practice, Buddha Dharmakaya, Dharma body, manifests itself within our practice.


So these two sides are, I think, the essential points of the Lotus Sutra. And after Chapter 16, what the sutra is talking about is merit. Merit of the practice and preaching, expressing this sutra, the Lotus Sutra. But Dogen Zenji really, as I talk later, really appreciates the Rota Sutra, and he often quotes from the Rota Sutra, but he never quotes from these three chapters. After Chapter 16, where the Sutra talks about the merit of practice,


To me, this is also important. Why Dogen didn't quote? Yeah. Anyway, on the 20th was the chapter of Bo Satoba, whose name was never disparaging. This is how we Bodhisattvas need to practice. His practice was not studying Dharma. But his practice was walking around and make reverence to all people. He said, you will be Buddha. You will surely become Buddha in the future. to all people. That's all he did. So, but those monks didn't like him.


You know, they thought they didn't need to receive such a prediction from such an ignorant monk. So some people threw stones to this Bodhisattva. He escaped. and go far away and repeat the same thing. And that was his practice in his entire life. Please. So yesterday you talked about how everyone is included, even people who take care of the students and who do devotional practices. But today what I'm hearing you say is that practice, when we practice, then we are within Buddha's eternal life.


So, are there people who are not within Buddha's eternal life? I'm not sure. You know, even in the Lotus Sutra, before Shakyamuni started to teach, you know, this one-vehicle Dharma, 5,000 people left. Are they within this one-vehicle or not? That is a good question. So, I'm not sure. I have no answer. But, of course, both Lotus Sutra and Dogen Zenji teach us to try to be there. Have a face within this one vehicle. And Dogen then said, I think Huinan also said, we are all in one vehicle. But within one vehicle, we are looking for different toys.


So even when we think I'm out of one vehicle, still we are in the one vehicle. I think that is the reality. So even when we think, I'm not being supported by all beings. I'm living by myself. I don't care about other people. Still, we are in the network of interdependent origination. Without support from other beings, we can't exist even one moment. In this case, support from others includes air, or water, or food. You know, as living beings, we can't exist even one moment without air. And air is not me. But somehow, we are supported by air, water, and so on.


So, whether we think We are in the one vehicle or not. We are still in this one vehicle. But the important point is we need to awake to that reality. And practice. Practice means actually do it. Actually do it means because we are supported by all beings, we try to support all beings. At least not be harmful to other beings. I think that is our practice. Is this the answer to your question? Please. I think so. At the time of Shakyamuni, there was no such concept. Ichanchika means people who cannot become Buddha. through lack of buddha-nature.


Unless they have the idea of buddha-nature, there is no idea of beings without buddha-nature. But later, for example, Keizai is for the fourth generation from Dogen, used the expression such as, Ichanchika with great compassion. Ichanchika. Please check. In Japanese we say Issendai. Anyway, this concept of Icchan Chika appeared in the Nirvana Sutra. So, not the time of Shakyamuni or even the time of, I'm not sure, the Lotus Sutra, if there is such a concept of Icchan Chika or not.


But it appeared in the Mahayana Parinirvana Sutra. where the sutra discusses Buddha nature. Well, here we are. So, that is about the outline of our essential points of the teaching in the Lotus Sutra. Now I'd like to start to talk about Dogen and the Lotus Sutra. As you know, Dogen Zenji was born in 1200 in Japan, and his father died when he was two years old, but we are not sure this is true or not anymore. That means today's Dogen scholars think the person who died when he was two was not his father.


That was his grandfather. And his father lived, was alive until Dogen was 27. That was the year he came back from China. But there is no evidence which is the true father of Dogen. Some scholars, as traditionally, thought this person, Minamoto Michichika, who died when Dogen was two years old, was the actual father. But today many scholars, Dogen scholars, think Michichika's son, Michitomo, was the real father of Dogen. Anyway, both are very high class aristocrats and government officers, officials.


And they are also famous as poets. both Chinese and Japanese waka poems. And it's said that Dogen's mother also died when he was seven. And at that time, Dogen wanted to become a Buddhist monk. So when he was nine years old, he started to study Buddhism. And the first text he studied was Abhidharma Kosha. when he was nine. Abhidharmakosha has thirty volumes. So before he started to study Buddhism, he was already very well educated. It's said when he was four, he studied Chinese poetry from his grandfather. So he received the best possible education


at his time. And he was also educated as a successor of his, not his family, but his father's, not his mother's father. His mother's father was like a prime minister. And Dogen was expected to take over, you know, that family position. So he was educated to be the government officials. So, if you read Shobo Genzo Zuimonki, Dogen often talks about Chinese, not Buddhist, but Chinese non-Buddhist classics such as Confucianism. and many Chinese people in Chinese classics. So he was really a genius.


It seems once he read some text, everything stayed in his mind. So he started to study Buddhism. But his relatives, fathers and uncles, wanted him to take over some kind of family position. But he didn't want to. So when he was 12 or 13 years old, he escaped. from his family, his home, and visited one of his uncles, who was a Tendai monk. And he asked his uncle, I wanted to become a monk. According to his biography, that was his mother's request.


And also he experienced impermanence and deep sadness because of his mother's death. So somehow this uncle accepted Dogen and sent Dogen to Mount Hiei. That was a large monastery, a large Tendai monastery. So he became a Buddhist monk within Tendai tradition. And the main sutra of Tendai school was the Lotus Sutra. So I think from the very beginning, when he started to study Tendai Buddhism, I think he studied the Lotus Sutra. And not only the sutra itself, but in order to study the Lotus Sutra, he had to study the commentaries of the Lotus Sutra.


The oldest commentary of the Lotus Sutra was written by Vasubandhu in India. And the most important commentaries in Tendai tradition were made by the great Tendai master, Tendai Chi-I. Chi-I or Chi-Gi in Japanese. Chi-I is Chinese. He lived in the, I think, 6th century. That was a little after Bodhidharma came from India. This Tendai Chigi was the most important and greatest Tendai teacher.


So, Dogen needed to study Chi's commentary. He wrote at least two commentaries on the Lotus Sutra. And after Chi, You know, there are many Tendai masters made their own commentaries. And Dogen often quote Chi's and Deita masters' writings. So from the very beginning, he became a Buddhist monk. The Lotus Sutra was a very important sutra. And, you know, Dogen scholars investigate everything about Dogen. And one of the Dogen scholars checked all the quotes appeared in the Shobo Genzo and other writings of Dogen.


And one scholar checked that Dogen quote the Lotus Sutra 51 times. within 27 chapters of Shobo Genzo. 27 out of 95 was pretty, you know, big number. And some of the, even the title of the fascicle of Shobo Genzo, such as Shobo Jisso, again, is an essential point of the Rota Sutra. And also, That's okay. At least several, several fascicles of Shobo Genzo. The title of several fascicles of Shobo Genzo came from the Rota Sutra.


So, even after he left Tendai tradition and started to practice Zen, And he received the transmission within Soto Zen tradition. And he expressed his own insight about Dharma. Still, Dogen, not rely on, but used the Rota Sutra quite often. And not only that, when he died, He died very young. He died when he was 53. He founded his own monastery, the first monastery named Koshoji in Kyoto. Not really in Kyoto at his time, but today it's a part of Kyoto city. The place named Fukakusa.


And the name of the monastery or temple was Koshoji. And he lived there for 10 years, from when he was 33 to 43. But somehow, we don't know exactly why, But pretty abruptly, Dogen and his Sanga moved out of Kyoto to the Echizen. Echizen is presently Fukui Prefecture. And Dogen founded another monastery today named Eiheiji. And he lived there for another 10 years, from 43 to 53. And when he became 53, that means 1253 that year, because he was born 1200 exactly. When he died, that year is 1253. In the, I think, January, first month, Dogen wrote the final fascicle of Shobo Genzo, entitled Hachidai Nengaku.


Hachidai Nengaku is the eight points of awakening of great beings. That was Dogen's final writing. And this Hachidai Nengaku, eight points of awakening, is appeared in the sutra of Buddha's final teaching. That is the same sutra I talked about before today. So, that was, in a sense, Shakyamuni's last teaching. And Dogen, when Dogen wrote this fascicle of Hachidainengaku, probably not probably pretty sure he knew he was dying. So that became the last chapter of Shobo Genzo. Please. So is the Dogon Classical, the eight points of awakening, those eight points of awakening appeared in that sutra?


He quoted almost exactly as it is said in the sutra. And he didn't make so much his own comments or commentary. He didn't explain, but he just quoted. So, his major successor, his successor Ejo, who became the second abbot of Eheiji, said this teaching of Eight Points of Awakening is Buddha's, Shakyamuni Buddha's final teaching, and also Dogen Zenji's will, or last teaching. So, at that time, I think I'm pretty sure Dogen knew he was dying. But in the summer, summer or fall, the seventh month, people asked Dogen to go to Kyoto, to return to Kyoto to receive some treatment for his sickness.


So he, anyway, he went back to Kyoto. It must be a really difficult travel for him. But within, I think within less than one month, he died. But right before he died, he did kinhin, like walking like kinhin, and he recited one passage from the Lotus Sutra. And that passage was from chapter 21. The name of this chapter is Power of the Tathagata, or Divine Power of the Tathagata, Nyorai Jinriki Hon.


And the passage is as follows. Therefore, you should, after the extinction of the Tathagata, so he's talking about after Buddha's parinirvana, Buddha's death, after the extinction of the Tathagata, wholeheartedly receive and keep read and recite, explain and copy, cultivate and practice. Practice it as the teaching. It means this sutra, the Lotus Sutra. In whatever land, whether it be received and kept, read and recited, explained and copied, cultivated and practiced as a teaching, whether in a place where a volume of the Sutra is kept, volume of this Sutra, the Lotus Sutra, is kept, or in a temple, or in a grove, grove means forest,


or under a tree, or in a monastery, or in a lay devotee's house, in a palace or a mountain, in a valley or in the wilderness. In all these places, you must elect a kaitia. Kaitia is Kaitya is a Sanskrit word. This is a kind of a tower, like a stupa. But Kaitya and stupa are a little different. Stupa is the place where Buddha's relics were enshrined. But in this Kaitya,


Buddha's relics were not enshrined. Only Buddha's sculpture, or sutra, is stored. So that is the difference. And in the Lotus Sutra it says, when you erect or construct this kind of shrine, It said, you don't need to enshrine Buddha's relics, but you should store this sutra. In this book, page 298, so kaitiya, where is the beginning. This is a long sentence.


The sentence starts, in whatever land, whether it be received and kept, read and recited, explained and copied, cultivated and practiced as a teaching, whether in a place where a volume of the sutra is kept, or in a temple, or in a grove, or under a tree, or in a monastery, or in a lay devotee's house, in a palace, or a mountain, in a valley, or in the wilderness. In all these places, you must erect or construct a kaitia and make offerings. Wherefore, why, you should know that all these spots, all these spots are the thrones of enlightenment.


Thrones of enlightenment is the same thing as the seat under the Bodhi tree, where Shakyamuni attained awakening. On these spots, the Buddha attained perfect enlightenment. So all those places are where Buddha attained perfect enlightenment. That means not only in Buddha Gaya in India, but everywhere, you know, this sutra is read and practiced, is where Buddha attained enlightenment. On this spot, the Buddha attained perfect enlightenment. On this spot, the Buddhas roll the wheel of the Dharma. So Buddha is teaching. Buddha is offering the Dharma discourse, Dharma teaching.


On these spots, the Buddhas enter nirvana. So all those places where this sutra is stored, or studied, or recited, or practiced, all those spots or places are where Buddha attained enlightenment, and Buddha taught, and where the Buddha entered nirvana. So we should build the stupa, wakaitia. So Dogen Zenji recited this part of the Lotus Sutra. Scholars think that particular part of the Lotus Sutra is important for Dogen because he had to die in his lay devotee's house. He left Eheiji and came to Kyoto and stayed with one of his lay disciples.


So he didn't die at Eheiji. But he said, it's not important. Wherever this sutra is studied and practiced, that is where Buddha is teaching. And in that building where Dogen was staying while he was sick in Kyoto, there is a pillar. And he made a calligraphy on that pillar. That is saying, Nam Myoho Renge Kyo An. An means the Hermitage. Hermitage had a small house. So that was his final activity about Dharma.


A few days after that, he died. So from the very beginning of his life as a Buddhist monk until he died, you know, the Lotus Sutra is very important for him. The stone that is installed at the site where he died in Kyoto, is that the stone? He didn't write on the stone, he wrote on the wooden pillar. and I don't know if it's true or not. After Nogenzen died, someone took that pillar to the person's temple and stole it.


I'm not sure that is true. But the stone existing in the place where Buddha died, I mean Dogen Zenji died in Kyoto was, I think, built in 20th century. So it's not old one. When I was in Kyoto, there was only tiny, tiny stone monument. But now, Eheiji, I think, built, make it a big place. When I was there, that place was a post office. Anyway, so for Dogen, the Lotus Sutra is really important. And, you know, for the e-newsletter of the Sanshin Zen community, I have been translating Dogen's Waka poems each month.


That is a translation of a collection of Dogen's waka poems. There are about 60 wakas altogether. And we are not sure who made that collection. It said Dogen Zenji's waka poems, but originally this collection of wakas in the last part of his biography, named Kenzeiki. Kenzei was the name of the abbot of Eheji, I think 708 or 709, so more than 100 years after Dogen. This abbot wrote Dogen Zenji's biography. And this record was made by this person, Kenzei.


The text is called the Kenzei Key. It's written by Kenzei. And this is the oldest, not really oldest, but largest biography of Dogen. And at the end of his biography, this collection of about 60 waka poems are added. That is the source of those Dogen waka poems. And the first five wakas in that collection was a waka poem about the Lotus Sutra. So, I'd like to introduce those workers. Before that, I forget to introduce one passage of Dogen about the importance of the Lotus Sutra.


This is a part of Shobo Genzo Kiesanbo. Kie Sanbu is taking refuge in three treasures. That is Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha. He wrote this fascicle, I think around when he was 50. So quite, not old, but close to his death. He says, The Lotus Sutra describes the great causes and conditions of Buddha Tathagatas. Causes and conditions came from the second chapter of the Lotus Sutra, skillful means, why, for what all Buddhas appeared in this world. And the Sutra said, only one reason.


only one great cause and conditions. The Rota Sutra is the king. King? The great master of the sutras. So, he said, Rota Sutra is the king of all the sutras. Expounded by Shakyamuni Buddha. All other sutras, besides the Lotus Sutra, all other sutras and dharmas, dharma teachings, are its subject, subject is like ministers, and relations, relatives. The words in the Lotus Sutra are genuine. Other sutras that include skillful means are not necessarily the essential teachings of the Buddha.


To rely on the words in other sutras in order to criticize the Lotus Sutra is upside down. Without the influence of the Lotus Sutra, There can be no other sutras. Other sutras assemble to take refuge in the Lotus Sutra. This sutra speaks of those who cannot hear the name of the Three Treasures. Anyways, this is what Dogen wrote about the importance of the Lotus Sutra. So he said the Lotus Sutra is the king of all the Buddhist sutras. Is there a sense in which the Lotus Sutra not only contains the teaching, but is the teaching, is the power of the Buddha itself as a


You know, some people have that kind of faith. You know, Rota Sutra is the main sutra of the Tendai school. And also, there is another school based on the Rota Sutra in Japan named Nichiren-shu. school established by this monk or priest, Nichiren. His main practice is chanting Nam-myoho-renge-kyo. That means, I take refuge in the Lotus Sutra. And this chanting, only chanting the name of this sutra has a power. Salvation. That kind of practice is very popular in Japan. And because of that, I was not interested in the Lotus Sutra for many years.


And Dogen's approach is quite different from that kind of faith in the Lotus Sutra. When I was young, especially I was about around a teenager. You know, that kind of practice in Japan. The group called the Soka Gakkai was very popular and very active. And they tried to convert all Japanese into their group. And I didn't like that. That's why I was not interested in the Lotus Sutra for many years, until I need to study the Lotus Sutra to study Dogen. So Dogen's approach of the Lotus Sutra is very different. OK.


Please. I think, yeah, Nam Myoho Renge Kyo An. the hermitage of I taking refuge in the Lotus Sutra. OK. Now I introduce some of his waka poems about the Lotus Sutra. And these waka poems express Dogen's approach to the Lotus Sutra. That is the difference from that kind of faith in the Lotus Sutra. There are five. The first one is in my translation.


I don't think I need to read in Japanese. Throughout the night, throughout the night, all day long, everything we do following the way of Dharma is the sound and the heart of this sutra. Everything we do, day and night, following the Dharma, the way of Dharma, is the sound and the heart of this sutra. So, all the activity, practices, day and night, means even when we sleep. So, he's talking about his practice at his monastery. Everything is done in the way you know, our activity expresses the Dharma.


Including sleep, including resting, all are, and of course including eating meals, all those activities are the sound and heart of this sutra. Everything is sound, and sound is chanting this sutra. So with our activities, not only using mouth, but using our entire body and mind, is the expression of this Lotus Sutra. So, you know, this is is meant that when we practice following Buddha's teaching, the Buddha's Dharmakaya or Dharma body is always present.


That means within our practice, Buddha's eternal life is manifested. This is the first poem about the Lotus Sutra. And the second one is in the valley, in the valley, vibrating sounds on the peak, monkeys, monkeys, intermittent, monkeys intermitting chattering. I hear them as they are, exquisitely expounding this sutra. So he lived in the mountains, and he heard the sound of a valley stream. That is, in the valley, vibrating sounds.


So he heard the sound of a valley stream. And on the peak, so the valley means down there, but from up there, from the peak of that mountain, he hear monkeys' intermittent chattering. Monks are... not monks. I'm sorry. Monkeys. Not monks are crying, but monkeys are crying and Dogen hear the sound of those monkeys chattering. And I hear them as they are, as they are. That means he doesn't interpret. He simply hears the sound of a valley stream or the sound of monkeys chattering without interpretation.


He just hears. All of those sounds are expounding this sutra, the Lotus Sutra. And the third waka poem is more kind of inclusive. He says, grasping the heart, grasping or understanding the heart of this sutra. Grasping the heart of this sutra. Even the voices of selling and buying in the world are expanding the Dharma. So, selling and buying. Merchants selling things and


you know, in the marketplace. Merchants are selling, and clients are shopping, buying something, anything. So the voices of merchants in the marketplace are expounding the Dharma. So if we grasp the heart of this Lotus Sutra, not only the sound of a valley stream, or the monkeys' cries, but even the noise from the marketplace is expanding the Dharma. So he, not only he practiced in a monastery, or the sound in the mountains, one from the nature, but sound made by human beings in the mundane world, is also expounding this Dharma.


So, basically, Phat Dogen says in these three Vaka poems is everything is expounding the true reality of all beings. Please. What is the sound? I need to talk about the entire fascicle of the sound of valley streams and the colors of mountains. So what he is saying here is everything is the sound of this sutra. Well, let me talk about this a little later, after I introduce five, two or three more waka poems. So this is the third one.


And the fourth one is more of a well-known waka. This is exactly what is said in the Keisei Sanshoku. You know, a Chinese poem composed by a famous Chinese poet, Su Shi, about the sound of a valley stream and the colors of mountains. Dogen says, Colors of the mountain peak and echoes of the valley stream, all of them as they are, are nothing other than my Shakyamuni's voice and appearance. My Shakyamuni's. It's kind of a strange thing, my Shakyamuni.


But that is what Dogen wrote. I think in the Sanshin e-news, someone who edited my translation took out this mic. But to me, this is important. Shakyamuni cannot be my possession, so my Shakyamuni sounds strange. But Shakyamuni is not a person in this poem who was born and died in India. But Shakyamuni is, you know, Shakyamuni with this eternal lifespan. That means Shakyamuni as Dharmakaya. And Shakyamuni, Dharma body, Dharmakaya, or eternal life of Shakyamuni was expressed particularly through this person's activity, this person's practice.


So, you know, each of us, through our own practice, through our own body and mind, express this eternal life of Shakyamuni. So my expression, my way of expressing Shakyamuni's life and your ways of expressing that Shakyamuni's life might be different. And this difference is okay. But all people's way of expression of Dharma is expression of my particular or unique way of expressing Shakyamuni's eternal life. So to me, this my is important. This is not My Shakyamuni's voice and appearance. So, colors of the mountain peak and echoes of the valley stream, the sound of valley stream, are all of them as they are.


So we don't need to interpret just as they are. are nothing other than my Shakyamuni's voice and appearance. Voice and appearance. So this is a kind of answer to the question, what is the sound for Dogen? That means, well, it takes too much time. That means there is no separation between the person who is hearing and the sound that is heard. But this is one thing. In Shobo Genzo Keisei Sanshoku, or Sound of Valley Stream and Colors of Mountain, Fendogen comments on the Sushi's poem saying the same thing.


Dogen said, Sushi had an experience of awakening. But Dogen said, is that Sushi who experienced awakening? Or is that the Valley Stream who experienced awakening? You know, Sushi is a subject, a person, and the sound of the Valley Stream is a kind of object of my my hearing, my ear, and we commonly think this person, Sushi in that case, had experience of awakening through hearing the sound. But if there is such a separation, that Sushi, as a subject, hears the sound of a rest room as an object, then has some kind of experience of awakening.


According to Dogen's definition of what is satori, or realization, and what is delusion, if we interpret this in this way, subject, object, and realization, subject and object encounter in a particular way, then that is delusion. According to Dogen's definition of enlightenment and delusion in Genjo-Koan. When we carry ourselves, convey ourselves to all beings and carry out practice enlightenment is delusion. But all beings come toward the self and carry out practice enlightenment is realization. That's the definition of Dogen's realization or satori and delusion. So, Fat Dogen said in Keisei Sanshoku, there is no such separation between... In that night, Sushi was sitting in the zendo, and he, the sound of valley stream, valley stream making the sound.


So it's not that Sushi is hearing that sound, and he has some kind of special, particular experience of enlightenment. But Sushi was just sitting. And Valley Stream is simply making a sound. And there's no such separation and connection or interaction as hearing. So no one will hear and nothing is heard. That is how Sushi, or at least in Dogen's interpretation, To hear the sound as a Lothar Sutra is not hearing. Because there is no such separation between subject and object. So this is my answer to the person's question. What is hearing? Hearing means no hearing.


Or not hearing means no separation between subject and object. The Sushi poem that this is written from, was it from the Chinese? Yeah. But it would have been a poem that you learned, Dogen learned, very early on in his development? Sushi was a very famous, well-known Chinese poet. And it was popular in Japan around the time of Dogen. So I'm pretty sure Dogen knew that poem before even he started to study Buddhism. I think. But this poem is important in Zen world. So Dogen interpret this poem from his, not point of view, but his insight, his understanding of Dharma in Keisei Sanshoku. It seems to me that there is a step away from something, trying to make his own.


His own. Yeah. My Shakyamuni is tremendous, really, in terms of the cultural inheritance of Zen through Shakyamuni. Yeah, so his insight or understanding is really boundless, no separation. And the fifth one, so the first four, Basically, same as what he said, that everything expresses or reveals the Dharma. When our eyes or our ears are open, everything is expounding Dharma. But the fifth one is a little different. He says, although no one avoids the horse of light and darkness, those who attain the way are rare.


Although no one avoids the horse of light and darkness, those who attain the way are rare. This horse of light and darkness means time. Light is daytime and darkness is night, and the horse runs very fast, very quickly. The horse, the animal, the horse was the fastest runner in Dogen's time. So time flies. like a horse, for a time learned like a horse. And we always experience this impermanence. And impermanence is the expression of this dharma. So although we, all of us, without any exception, experience impermanence, that means we may die any time.


Still, Although no one can avoid the horse of light and darkness, those who attain the way are rare. So although every one of us are living within this reality of interconnectedness, nothing existing independently without the relation with others. So other things are changing, we must change. Nothing is fixed or eternal, permanent. So we are really experiencing this true reality of all beings. And yet, those who attain the way, way is realization, or awakening are rare.


All of us are living within this interconnectedness, but not many people are aware or awakened to that reality. So here is a little difference. That means everything is expanding Dharma, but not many people listen to it, hear it. So fat is the difference. Fat makes us to be able to listen to the Dharma by seeing and hearing almost everything. Fat is this turning point. You know, not many people can, you know, we hear the same sound, but not many people hear the same sound as the Dharma expanding.


But some people do. What is the difference? What is the pivotal point of this difference? I think is the main point of entire Buddhist teaching. And also the main essential point of this first school, hokke ten hokke, that is the turning point of hearing the sound and seeing the color as the lotus sutra, or dharma flower, or the expanding of dharma. good time to stop. So from this afternoon I start to read the text of Hokkepen Hokke. But I'd like to start. Let's see.


Paragraph 4, page 4, paragraph 4. That is a conversation between Huinanda's sixth ancestor and one of his disciples. Actually, the paragraphs start at the beginning, top of page 5. It says, a monk named Father once visited the assembly of the Master Dajin. It's on page 4. OK. So this is paragraph 4. OK. Page number is confusing. So, because, you know, this story or conversation between Shuinan and this person's father shows Dogen's, how can I say, Dogen's point of view.


How we read and understand the Lotus Sutra.