2012.08.01-serial.00144

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Good morning, everyone. This morning I start from the bottom of page 5, but it's only the title, so start from page 6. Let me read this paragraph. Page 6. When buddhas turn the dharma wheel, there is light and sound like this. We should know that when a buddha manifests a buddha body, and enables living beings to cross over the river between samsara and nirvana is also like this.

[01:03]

This is called the insight without arising and perishing. Manifesting a buddha body and enabling living beings to cross over means that enabling living beings to cross over is itself manifesting a buddha body. Facing crossing over, we don't look for manifestation. Seeing manifestation, we don't doubt crossing over. We should understand, expound, and verify that within this crossing over, the Buddha Dharma is completely penetrated. We hear and expound that manifestation and the body is the same as crossing over. This is also caused by manifesting the body and letting living beings cross over.

[02:19]

Because the Buddha verified this principle from the morning of attaining the way to the evening of entering nirvana, even though he did not expand one single word, his words were freely expressed. I hope you like this. In the very beginning of this paragraph he says, therefore, when Buddha turned the Dharma wheel, There is light and sound like this. Light is the symbol of wisdom, Buddha's wisdom. And sound refers to Buddha's teaching, speaking, expanding.

[03:25]

So wisdom and the expression of wisdom. And like this refers to what he wrote in the end of last paragraph. That is, I think this is important, so I repeat what he said in the end of the last paragraph is about life and death. He said shi, chu, katsu, and katsu, chu, shi, and shi, chu, shi, and katsu, chu, katsu. And I said, you know, within this there is living, or life.

[04:31]

And these are all changing the order. And as I said yesterday, this is shichu katsu is ku, soku, ze, shiki. Emptiness is form. And form is emptiness. And ku, soku, emptiness is nothing other than emptiness. And form, shiki, ze, shiki. Form is nothing other than form. These four things. He just changed the order of the words.

[05:34]

But I think this is really important to understand what he is talking about in this Yojibutsu Yobutsu. And that is why he said, you know, this is the light and sound of Buddha's and ancestors' teaching. And this is what Dogen, this side, is what Dogen said in Shobo Genzo Makaha Niharamichi. That is his comment on the Heart Sutra. Heart Sutra says, Shiki Sokuze Kuu Kuu Sokuze Shiki. Form is emptiness. Emptiness is form. And Dogen added two. Emptiness is emptiness. and form is form. As I said, this means when we say form is emptiness or emptiness is form, there are two opposite things.

[06:43]

These two are emptiness and form is opposite. If this is emptiness, there is no form. And if there is a form, this is not empty. And yet, so this is not like A equals B and B equals A and A is A and B is B. But this B is non-A. Negation of A. So that is an interesting point. Can you say that again? A is a negation of B? Yeah, and B is a negation of A. A and B negate each other, and yet support each other. Form and emptiness, and emptiness is form.

[07:45]

When we say form is emptiness, these two opposite things are equal. Both shikisoku zeku and kuusoku ze shiki. But the reason why Dogen added these two is these are still thinking. There are two concepts, form and emptiness, and emptiness and form. and they think they are equal. If they are really equal, if form is really itself emptiness, we don't need to say form is emptiness. When we say form, emptiness is already there. And when we say emptiness, form is already there. So form is form, but within this form and form Emptiness is hidden.

[08:51]

Emptiness is hidden within form. Emptiness is emptiness. Form hides itself within emptiness. That is the idea of these four lines. And this logic is really, I think, important. Not important, probably. It's helpful if we understand this logic. It's helpful to understand some part of Dōgen's writing, because he often used this logic. There are some examples. One is in Zanmai Ōzanmai. samādhi, that is king of samādhis. I think we are familiar with this first group.

[09:55]

In the beginning of this first group, about, so this zanmai or zanma is about our zazen practice. He called our zazen, our just sitting, is samādhi, that is king of samādhis. And in the very beginning, he quotes the famous saying of his teacher, Tendo Nyojo Zenji, you know, Zazen is dropping off body and mind, so we just sit. We don't need to practice repentance, chanting, burning incense, and so on and so forth. After that, Dogen says, For the last four or five hundred years, my late teacher alone gouged out the eye of the Buddha's ancestors. wisdom, caught out the eye of Buddha ancestors and sat therein, right within the essence or wisdom of Buddha ancestors.

[11:10]

He's talking about his teacher. And few masters in China have been equal to him. Not many people In China, Chinese Zen masters are not equal to his teacher. There, there have been only few who have clarified the fact that sitting is the Buddha Dharma itself. Sitting, he used taza instead of zazen. Taza in shikan taza. Zazen is sitting meditation. But he often called his sitting practice as sitting instead of meditation. And Shikantada is one of the examples. And I think sitting is done with our body.

[12:16]

And Zen or meditation is done with our mind. But he put emphasis on sitting using our body. Of course, body and mind are always one. Anyway, so Dogen says he, his teacher, and some of Chinese masters understand sitting is itself buddhadharma, buddho. So sitting is a very concrete thing we do using our body. So it is a form. Sitting is a certain form of our body, how to use our body. And yet he said this sitting is itself Buddha Dharma. That is boundless, infinite, universal thing.

[13:19]

So this just sitting. using this actual body, very concrete sitting, for a certain period of time, usually 40, 50, or one hour, or so. So what he said is this sitting is itself buddhadharma. That sitting is the buddhadharma itself. that the buddhadharma is nothing other than sitting. And he said opposite, sitting is buddhadharma and buddhadharma is sitting. I think this is same as form is emptiness, emptiness is form. Sitting is buddhadharma and buddhadharma is sitting. You know something formless should and something with form is equal, the same thing.

[14:22]

But, he continues, even though some have understood through experience that sitting is the Buddhadharma, some people understand sitting is Buddhadharma, None have known that sitting is just sitting. When we say sitting is buddhadharma, we are still thinking, you know, this sitting is painful, difficult, boring, sleepy thing, but this is buddhadharma. But when we say or think in that way, we are still thinking, you know, even though this is a hard practice, but this is Buddhadharma. So this is important, so I have to do it. That is the fact that sitting is Buddhadharma.

[15:28]

But when we really sit, we really just sit. Don't think about Buddhadharma. To think that this sitting is a buddhadharma is already something extra. We get out of just sitting. We are thinking this sitting is buddhadharma. So when we sit, we just sit. So forget about buddhadharma. So, no one has known that sitting is just sitting. And much less have there been only who have uphold and maintained the Buddha Dharma as the Buddha Dharma. So here he said, sitting is just sitting and Buddha Dharma is just Buddha Dharma. So there are, you know, those four points in his comment about Nyojo's saying about our Zazen.

[16:34]

And he continued, therefore, there is sitting of the mind. Sitting of the mind, mind is shin, and which is different from sitting of the body. Sitting of the mind and sitting of the body. And there is sitting of dropping of body and mind. which is different from sitting or dropping off body and mind. Now I think we understand what this means. Sitting or dropping off body and mind is different from sitting or dropping off body and mind. The second one is thinking. This sitting is dropping off body and mind. When we merely just sit, you know, body and mind is naturally dropped off.

[17:36]

It's not done by our effort to drop off our body and mind. But within our zazen, just sitting, our body and mind is naturally dropped off. Grasping this corresponds to the practice and understanding of the Buddhas and ancestors. So we see just sitting and buddhadharma, just sitting as a practice of buddhadharma, in those four kinds of perspectives. This is one of the examples of this logic. And another one, this is a little different, but in Genjo Koan, he talks, discuss about fish and bird. And he said, we should know that for a fish, water means life.

[18:44]

So fish and water and bird and sky is the same as, you know, person in the mountain. But I talked yesterday afternoon. We are a person in a mountain. We are always inside of the mountain. We are always within the world. We are born in the world, we are living within the world, and we die within the world. So we can see this world only from inside. We can never get out of the world and see it as an object. That is the structure of our life. And a fish swimming in the ocean or a bird flying in the sky is the same thing. And that is the same as, you know, Nirvanakaya Shakyamuni is living within Dharmakaya Shakyamuni.

[19:45]

and Sambhogakaya Shakyamuni is practicing continuously within the Dharmakaya Shakyamuni. That is the same structure of our life. So we don't need to, you know, When we read sutras like Lotus Sutra, we don't need to take fapis written in those sutras as the story, as a true story. But the story is a literal expression of this structure of our life and our practice. Anyway, in Genjoko, he says about fish and bird, we should know that for a fish, water means life.

[20:46]

For a bird, sky means life. So fish, bird, or person in the mountain, the mountain or ocean or sky is our life. And a bird is life. about tiny living beings is life. Life means this entirety. Each and every small living being, not only living, each and every being within this world is life. Life is something formless, same as Buddhadharma. And fish or bird is something very concrete and not so big thing, but moving around. Fish swimming or flying or walking. So those small things, each and every small things is life that is permeate entire this mountains or ocean or sky.

[21:56]

And fish is life. A bird is life. A fish is life. And life is a bird. Fish is life. Bird is life. And next he said, life is fish. And life is a bird. Life is a bird. Life is a fish. Here he doesn't say fish is fish and bird is bird here, but he's discussing the same thing. Birds are not fish, fish are not bird, but they are all life. And this universal, all-pervading life, it manifests itself as a tiny fish or a bird. And bird and fish are different. And of course, we could say life and bird are different.

[23:00]

Life is just bird. Bird is just bird. And fish is just a fish. But he didn't say, you know, second part. There are more examples, but another one was the sentences I introduced before, that is, in Shōhō Jissō, Dōgen Zenji says about Shōhō, all beings, and Jissō, true reality. And he said, when all beings are truly all beings. All beings means a fish, a bird, or a person in the mountain. Those each and every beings within this network. When all beings are truly all beings, when a fish is truly a fish, when a practitioner is truly a practitioner, then we call them only a Buddha.

[24:09]

And when all beings are, when all beings are true reality, that means when fish is life, when all beings is true reality, we call them together with the Buddha. So, he, you know, cut this expression, yui-butsu, yo-butsu, into half. And each yuibutsu and youbutsu are names of Buddha. This one is only Buddha. So bird is just a bird. Fish is just a fish. Shohaku is just shohaku. But this youbutsu is together Buddha. There is no bird without relation with other beings and the sky. and there is no shohaku without relation with other beings and this entire world.

[25:12]

That is your Buddha, together Buddha. So when shohaku is really shohaku, shohaku is just shohaku, that is only Buddha. And shohaku, because there is no such thing called shohaku without relation with others, that is a together Buddha. And not only human beings, but each and every living beings and non-living beings, everything is the same. All are yuibutsu and all are yobutsu. And he, you know, I said this first school of Shogo Genzo, yuibutsu, yobutsu, is about Dharma transmission. And he apply the same logic in Dharma transmission within the relation between teacher and disciple. This appeared in Kato.

[26:18]

I think I talked about this versicle before. Katsu is kuzu, and to is wisteria. Both are vines. And kato is usually used as an entanglement. And entanglement usually means problem within human relations. Even though we cannot separate, when we are together we have problems, conflict, and yet we cannot separate. That is what katto means in Japanese, common Japanese. But Dogen used this expression katto, entanglement, in a very positive way to describe dharma transmission. You know, when Shakyamuni awakens to

[27:24]

the reality. And Mahakasyapa awakened the same reality. And so Buddha's awakening and Mahakasyapa's awakening entangled each other. And there's no way to cut off. It's so complicatedly entangled each other. And Dharma has been transmitted in this way, so each person is a different person. Shakyamuni, Mahakasyapa, Ananda, and Bodhidharma, and Hiko, all are different people, but their awakening is entangled. So we cannot say the individuality. They are all Buddhas and ancestors as for the awakening. That is the meaning of this katto.

[28:26]

And in this first clue, he discussed about the transmission between Bodhidharma and the second ancestor, Huiko. And I think I already talked about that point. But after that, he said about the relation between teacher and disciple. He said, In looking at the occasion when Kashapa, Mahakashapa, transmitted to Ananda. In looking at the occasion when Kashapa transmitted to Ananda. Ananda hides his body in Kashapa. Ananda hides his body in Kashyapa, and Kashyapa hides his body in Ananda. This hide his body is another important expression.

[29:33]

Hide his body is a translation of Zoushin. Zō is senzō in shōbōgen-zō, that is, storehouse, or to store. But in this case, when something is stored in the storehouse, we cannot see it. So this can also mean to hide. And shin is body. So, sen dharma is transmitted. Mahākāśyapa First he said, Ananda hide himself within Mahakasyapa. That means Mahakasyapa and Ananda become really one thing. There is no two people, only one people.

[30:40]

Mahakasyapa and Ananda are two different people, but when Dharma is transmitted, these two become one. So Ananda hides his body within Mahakasyapa and Mahakasyapa hides his body within Ananda. So Ananda and Mahakasyapa become really one. So we can say Mahakasyapa is Ananda and Ananda is Mahakasyapa and yet Mahakasyapa is only Mahakasyapa. and ananda is only ananda. They are not, they didn't become same person. They are one and yet they are not one. These two sides, ego and fuego. So, ego, you know, ego and fuego, ego is interaction and fuego is not interaction.

[31:49]

So, and a few sentences later he said, Dharma, this Dharma referred to Bodhidharma. Bodhidharma was already... When Bodhidharma transmitted the Dharma, then he said, Dharma was already... It's complicated. Dharma was already Dharma when he transmitted to. This is about transmission of Dharma. When Bodhidharma transmits the Dharma to Ananda, then Bodhidharma is Dharma. And the second ancestor was already Dharma when he got the marrow. He received the transmission. He was Bodhidharma.

[32:55]

Bodhidharma is Bodhidharma. And Ananda is also Bodhidharma. So Bodhidharma and Ananda become really one. Does this occur at one point in time? Or is this always going on between teacher and student? And I'm not talking about the ceremony of Dharma transmission. that this is always going on? Or it's just at one time? I don't know. From one side, it's always. From another side, it's when teacher and student really one. That means when student really understand teacher's teaching and really practice the same practice with the teacher, then you know, teacher and student or disciple are really one.

[33:58]

But as a larger perspective, we are always one. So we can say both. We have to say, you know, from three, the one thing from all those four different perspectives. At least this is a time of transmission. And feign is a time of transmission means. Is it during the ceremony? Or is transmission always happening? Or transmission happens between certain people, certain particular people, like Ananda, Mahakasyapa and Ananda? or Bodhidharma and Second Ancestor. We can say from all different perspectives. So I have no answer to your question.

[35:01]

Okay, so, and he continues. Because of the investigation of this principle, the Buddha Dharma remains the Buddha Dharma down to today. If it were not like this, the Buddha Dharma would not have reached us today. So that is, you know, within our lineage, Dharma has been transmitted in this way. In this way means teacher is student, and student is teacher, completely one, and yet completely independent. Teacher is teacher and student is student. But within teacher is teacher, student is hide his body. And within student, teacher hide his body. So, you know, Uchiyama Roshi and me are very different person.

[36:05]

He was 36 years older than me. This 36 years between his verse and my verse, there's a big change in Japan. That is World War II. Before and after World War II, the education system has changed. So my way of thinking and his way of thinking are very different. So, you know, some part of his activities, his way of doing things and thinking, It's very difficult for me to accept. I think it's very natural, you know, this is a kind of a generation gap. As an individual people, we are different. But when I study and practice with my teacher, Uchiyama Roshi as my teacher, Dharma teacher, I study Dharma from him, that individual difference is not a matter.

[37:13]

But about Dharma and practice, when I have a different idea from my teacher, I put aside my understanding and I follow my teacher's teaching and practice it, even though I don't kill my idea. It's still there, but I follow my teacher's until I feel I completely understand what he meant. Then I tried to make a connection with my understanding and what he taught. So as for Dharma, as I said, I started to study Buddhism after I read his book. So before that I knew nothing about Buddhism or Zen. And I went to a Buddhist university to study Buddhism to understand my teacher's teaching.

[38:22]

So my teacher is really a starting point of my study and practice. So my understanding of Buddhism or Zen is shaped by my teacher. So there's no really difference. I was really a kind of a work of my teacher. And yet, you know, fortunately or unfortunately, I could live and practice together with my teacher only three and a half years. You know, when he became 63, he retired. and he sent three of his disciples to this country. So when I was 27, I left my teacher and came to this country. After that, I never practiced with my teacher. And the culture and society and tradition are very different between Japan and the United States.

[39:31]

My understanding of Buddhism or Buddha Dharma or Dogen's teaching, I studied and practiced and it very well worked in Japan. Our Japanese society didn't work at all. So I couldn't continue to practice with the same understanding or same style of practice. So I have to make change. But if I make change, I try to follow his spirit and his style of practice. So, in that sense, as an individual person, my teacher and myself are very different. And yet, I think what I'm doing now is a continuation of what he was doing in Japan. So, my life, my vow, my practice, my studying and teaching is exactly the same teaching, and yet we are very different.

[40:44]

I think that relation, I mean, these four points, how can I say, express that relation, one and yet completely different. Even we are different, but within Uchiyama Roshi, I am hidden. And within my teaching and practice and life, he is there. That kind of relation. And unless we have this kind of very intimate relation, not relation, being really one, and yet different, Unless we have this kind of, in a sense, difference and unity, merging of difference and unity, then Dharma cannot be transmitted. Please. Rishi, I had a question about the quotation that we're talking about.

[41:50]

In death there is the living, in life there is the dead, and so on. In many of these instances that you mentioned, It's not metaphorical. Life is the bird, the bird is life. Is this also not metaphorical? This is... What does it mean, not metaphorically, to say, there are the dead who are always dead, there are the living who are always living? There are sounds like it's referring to beings. How can beings be dead who are always dead, or living who are always living? You know, the name of this person, the master is Shishin, dead, dead mind. Dead mind or dead heart. So for, it seems for him this was dead, is important. And this, this is not something negative.

[42:52]

But I, you know, I think this means no separation. There's nothing. But life means individuality or positive way of expression. So this is not really a dead person and a living person. So I think this is a metaphoric life. Yes. Please. I have a question that may be similar. I don't know if I'm getting it. stuck on being too literal. And then you said, form is form, and emptiness is emptiness. And then you said, A is non-B. So I'm wondering if that means form as something concrete or permanent? Is that the meaning? Form is concrete and impermanent. Is it concrete and impermanent?

[43:55]

Emptiness is formless and no arising and no perishing. No arising, no perishing. Form is no arising, no perishing. Emptiness. Oh, emptiness is no arising, no perishing. Form arises, stays for a while, and perishes. Form is conditioned, which arises, stays for a while, and disappears. That is form. And emptiness is No arising, no perishing. And when you use the word concrete, do you mean compounded? Conditioned. Conditioned, okay. Like shohaku. I was born 13 years and have been for 13 years and dying. And I'm conditioned within time and space. That is all forms. So as a form, this is conditioned as shohaku. as a Japanese Buddhist priest.

[44:59]

But at the same time, this is empty. That means it doesn't arise, doesn't really hear, and doesn't perish. That is what emptiness means. When five skandhas are empty, nothing arises, nothing stays, nothing perishes. But at the same time, there's no emptiness apart from shohagun, right? There's no emptiness apart from shohaku. No emptiness apart from shohaku. That is, fat form is emptiness, and emptiness is form. I think it's very simple. Please. What did it make for you a big difference to say form is empty.

[46:03]

Form is empty and form is emptiness. Are these two different statements for you? I think so. Form is empty means about this form. And emptiness is a kind of noun. And when we say form is empty, empty is an adjective. And emptiness is a noun. So this empty adjective becomes noun. Becomes noun means becomes concept. I think. Yeah, that's why I had the problem to understand why you say like this is not compatible form and emptiness because I always thought like every form is conditioned and therefore every form is empty and that does not negate each other. So the negation only comes in if you use form is emptiness, and not when you say form is empty.

[47:05]

Right. You know, when we say form is emptiness, ku shiki sokze ku, ku sokze shiki, this ku is noun. You know, I don't think we can say form, form is empty and empty is form. It should be emptiness, I think. But I think this is very helpful and important to understand what he's talking about here. Because everything he's talking here and many things in other parts of Shogo Genzo discussed within this way. So, I start. Page 6.

[48:07]

So, first he said, when Buddha turned the Dharma Wheel, there is light and sound like this. Like this means, you know, this way of viewing, seeing four perspectives. And these things, from those four perspectives, allow us to open our hands. Whatever I say and grasp it, it's not. So we have to open our hands. And when we grasp another side, it is not. So we have to open our hands. That is how we become free from, you know, this subject, object, and contact, and sensation, perception, and attachment, clinging, sequence.

[49:13]

But when we see in that way, object is not really object. It cannot be grasped as a certain object. with a certain definition and evaluation. And we see, you know, this is actually one thing. And that is fact, subject and object, our mind and like flowers and moons are working together. Flowers influence ourselves and that create, you know, how we feel, how we do things. And yet, this is one thing. And that is what Dogen called Zenki. Zenki is total function. These subject, object are one, not separate. And when, in the very beginning of Shobo Genzo Zenki, or total function,

[50:19]

Dōgen Zen said, the great way of Buddhas, the great way of Buddhas, when it is completely penetrated, liberation and manifestation. Liberation is tō, tō that's and manifestation is Genjo. Tōdatsu means, I translate this Tōdatsu as liberation. This Datsu is the same as Datsu in dropping of body and mind. Shinjin Datsu Raku. That means to take off. And Tō is to freely go through. So Tōdatsu is You know, later in Zenki, he said, life is liberated from life itself.

[51:27]

Death is liberated from death itself. So that means life is not life, and death is not death. But Genjo, as a Genjo or manifestation, life is life, death is death. You know, Shouhaku is Shouhaku. That means I have to take care of this Genjo, this five skandhas as a Genjo, as Shohaku. And yet Shohaku is not really a Shohaku. There's no such thing. So there are both sides. Same as these four points. Nothing is fixed. And yet, at this moment, As Dogen said in Genjo Koan, at this moment, firewood is 100% firewood, nothing else.

[52:29]

And yet, when firewood is burned, without hesitation, it becomes ash. So at this moment, Shohaku is really a Shohaku, and Shohaku is now a speaker, so I try to speak as much as I can about Dogen's teachings. But when this lecture is over, then I'm not a speaker anymore. So it's always changing. But at least this moment, this is my job as a shohaku. I 100% try to do my responsibility. That is Genjo. But I'm not a speaker always. I'm not a lecturer always. I'm not a priest always. When I go home, I'm not a priest. When I'm together with my wife and children,

[53:32]

If I behave like a priest or a teacher, it's very difficult to be there. So I have to change the mode. At home, I'm not a priest or I'm not a teacher. I'm a father or a husband. So there's no such fixed thing as a shohaku as a priest. So we need to freely change in each moment. But at that moment, firewood is 100% firewood. So I have to take care of it. But next moment, it might be something else. So I have to forget about being a teacher at home. If I have some cringing to be a teacher, When I teach, some people respect me, but at home, my children never respect me.

[54:36]

I have to accept it, but that is really important. So both liberation, always changing, and manifestation at this moment, I have certain things to do. And I wholeheartedly do that at this moment. So this both sides is really important. Where fear we are. Maybe I talked only first sentence. Therefore, when Buddha's turn the Dharma wheel, there is light and sound like this. So this is how Buddha Dharma can be understood and practiced as Buddha Dharma. And this paragraph, he talks about gen, shin, dou, shou.

[55:47]

Gen is the same Gen in Genjo, but in this case it appears or manifests. And Shin is body. And Do is the same Do in Shujo, Muhen, Seigan, Do. And that means to save, or sometimes translated as free. But as I said, this Do literally means to cross over. cross over between the river, between Sansara, or this shore, and the other shore, Nirvana. That is, transform people to, from Sansara to Nirvana. And this Sho is abbreviation of Shujo. Shujo means living beings, all living beings.

[57:25]

So, appearing the body and allow living beings to cross over. This is Buddha's job, Buddha's work. Buddha appear in this world, appear his body, manifest his body in this world and help all living beings to cross over the river from samsara to nirvana. This is what Buddha does. Or, you know, Dharmakaya Buddha manifest his body as a human body and help or save living beings. And he says, this Buddha's work, appearing his body, or manifesting his body, and help living beings to cross over, save all beings.

[58:32]

But Buddha's job, work, is the same thing. That means it should be seen from those four perspectives. And this is called the insight without arising and perishing. It's only said, without arising, that is musho. But I think this is an abbreviation of not only not arising, but also not perishing. That means this insight is a translation of Chiken. And this is the word used in the Lotus Sutra. When he said, not he, but the Sutra says, all Buddhas appeared in this world in order to show the Buddhas

[59:47]

Sanskrit word is darshana. That is, chi is to know and ken is to be, to view or to see. And chiken together I translate inside, how Buddha sees things. So, in the Lotus Sutra it says, all Buddhas appear in this world to It is Kai, Ji, Go, Nyu. Kai is open, and Ji is show. Go is realize. And Nyu, Nyu is enter. So all buddhas appeared in this world to open buddha's darshana, buddha's insight, and show buddha's insight, and allow all beings realize buddha's insight, and allow all beings enter the buddha's insight.

[61:16]

That is what is said in the second chapter, Skillful Means, of the Lotus Sutra. So, this is what the Buddha does. So, here, you know, there is a Buddha and his body and his work of Do Do is allowing living beings to cross over. But it's too long, so let me use this word, Japanese word, Do. It's very simple. So, Buddha again appear or manifest his body and save all living beings. There are four things. Buddha manifests his body and saves all beings.

[62:19]

That is the meaning of this expression, genshin and no-sho. And what he's saying is, next sentence, manifesting a Buddha body, manifesting Buddha body is manifesting a buddha body and enabling living beings, that is, do or save beings, beings to cross over, means that enabling living beings to cross over is itself manifesting a buddha body. So, what he is saying is this Genshin and Dosho is the same thing. Genshin is Dosho and Dosho is Genshin. I translate into English very complicated because these are so many words.

[63:25]

But what Dogen is saying in Japanese is very simple. Genshin is Dosho and Dosho is Genshin. Same as form is emptiness, emptiness is form. But I think this means In the case of Lotus Sutra, this is about all Buddhas working, but we can understand this Genshin and Dosho as Genshin is our practice. We practice to understand Dharma and embody the Dharma. Our practice. And as a Bodhisattva, we vow to save all beings, or help all beings. These two, the connection or relation between practice for ourselves and helping others, the relation between these two.

[64:28]

We practice for ourselves, seeking the Dharma. That is said in Japanese, bo dai. jo means upward, above, and gu is seek. And bodai is body. So upward with seek, awakening. And ge ke Shujo. Ge means downward, and ke is transform, all living beings. So, this is Buddha's work, but as our bodhisattva practice, we seek awakening, go upward, study and practice to

[65:41]

may allow ourselves mature bodhisattvas. And yet, at the same time, we have to help other beings. So these are two sides to, how can I say, to become a mature bodhisattva, we have to practice for ourselves. And at the same time, we have to help others. And these two are not first and second. Often, as our common understanding, first we have to practice and attain certain skills and knowledge, then we can help others. But what Dogen is saying is, this seeking our own practice, seeking the awakening, is itself helping others. And also, helping others itself is our practice for our own, to improve ourselves.

[66:52]

These two are not two separate things. These two are two aspects of our practice, or both parts of our practice. But these two should be really one. But later he said these two are really our practice, just our practice. And helping others, just helping others. So we have to always see from those four perspectives. And the rest of this paragraph is kind of a key They construct this expression into not half, but into four pieces. And facing cross over, cross over is this do. Facing cross over, when we do cross over, we don't look for manifestation.

[67:59]

Manifestation is gen. When we face do, we don't see gen. So do and gen, are completely independent of each other. Facing crossover, we don't look for manifestation. Seeing manifestation, we don't doubt crossing over. When we are manifesting, when Buddha is manifesting his body, we are practicing for ourselves, helping others, is already there, we don't need to doubt about it. Our practice for ourselves, for our own, is at the same time helping others. Even when we are sitting in the deep mountains, or a quiet place, separate from the noisy society, still our practice is helping others.

[69:02]

If we don't think so, then our practice is escaping from the society. So even when we practice in a quiet, small place, within our practice, you know, the problematic society should be included. Otherwise, our practice is escaping, not a Bodhisattva practice. we should understand, expound and verify that within this crossing over, within this door, within this crossing over, the Buddha Dharma is completely penetrated. When we are helping others, to help others, we need to be in the society, where people are there, people are really living. with many problems, but when, in this case, when we are working in the society, still that activity to help others is a kind of engaged way of practice.

[70:20]

You know, Genshin is already there. So Buddha Dharma is completely penetrated, even when we cannot sit so much, and we have to work for the society, not have to, but when we feel that is our vow, our practice, then that is, he said, Buddhadharma is completely penetrated within that kind of activity, within the society to help others. So these two sitting, focus on sitting and studying Dharma in a quiet place and working in the society should be penetrated each other. If we think, you know, they are not good or they are escaping, these are separation.

[71:23]

That is not good. So both should be included. or within one bodhisattva practice, there are always two sides to work with all beings, and also to deepen our understanding and practice. So, dharma should be spread all over the world, and yet dharma also should be deepened. And it's very difficult to do both for one person. There are some people who are whose vow is deepening the Dharma. You know, for example, Sawakiroshi was traveling all over Japan, teaching Dharma. But Uchamurashi didn't travel. He stayed at Antaishi. One of the reasons is Uchamurashi was physically weak, so he couldn't travel. But spreading Dharma and deepening Dharma can be done by

[72:28]

different group of people, but often those group of people criticize each other. That is a problem. But if those two groups of people or two styles of practice support each other, then dharma will turn in a healthy way. And not only do, we hear and expound that manifestation, that is Gen, and the body, that is the practice for our own, is the same as crossing over. That means Buddhadharma is manifested within that practice also. This is also caused by manifesting the body, manifesting the body, Genshin, and letting living beings cross over, that is Dosho.

[73:35]

So both are the same. So these two are Genshin is Dosho, and Dosho is Genshin. But when we work in the society, we should decisively focus on that activity. And when we sit in the Zen-do, we just sit in the Zen-do, forget about the society, what we are doing. There is a story in Tenzo Kyokun or Chiri Shingi, there is a person whose name was Mujaku. Mujaku means no attachment. He was a Tenzo, he was cooking in the kitchen. He was making gruel or okayu. above his pot, Monjushri appeared. Then Mujaku hit the Monjushri, and Monjushri disappeared.

[74:36]

That story means Monjushri is possessed by enshrined in the Zen door. So, when Monjushri appeared in the kitchen, that means the person is thinking about the Zen. Often we think, you know, what I'm doing is the worst thing. When we are sitting, I think, you know, working in the kitchen might be better. But when we work in the kitchen, I want to be in the zendo. That kind of mentality is not really being right now, right here. That is not samadhi. So when we work in the society or when we work in the kitchen, just work there. Forget about the Zen. But when we are in the Zen-do, forget about the work in the kitchen. Just sit, focusing on what we are doing, where we are now.

[75:41]

That is mindfulness or samadhi in our practice. So, both Genshin and Dosho, we should focus on what we are actually doing. Because the Buddha verifies this principle, this principle of same and yet different, penetrating each other and yet independent. these two ways. Because the Buddha verified this principle from the morning of attaining the way, then he became a Buddha, to the evening of entering nirvana, when he died. So, between this morning of enlightenment and night or evening of entering nirvana,

[76:49]

Buddha worked more than 40 years to traveling all over India and teaching or helping all beings to cross over. So, from the morning of attaining the way to the evening of entering nirvana, even though he didn't expand one single word, this is the expression I think it appears in Ryōga-kyō. What is Ryōga-kyō in Sanskrit? Ranggapa Tarasutra. It is Buddha for 49 years. Buddha didn't say any single word. That means, you know, word means idea or concept. But what he said is exactly what is there as reality itself. This is the idea of Dharma transmission from Shakyamuni to Mahakasyapa.

[77:56]

Shakyamuni didn't say anything, but just look at the flower. Or transmission from Bodhidharma to the second ancestor. Second ancestor just made prostration without saying anything. But those stories express this side. Buddha didn't say anything. just showed the reality itself. And yet, his words were freely expressed. So he said nothing, but his words were freely expressed. And these four points allowed us to do the same thing, to practice the same way, without attaching any teaching. We solely study the teaching and practice it, but we don't cling to the teaching.

[79:00]

That is how Buddha Dharma has been transmitted until today. And in the case of Dharma transmission, teachers and disciples practice with the same attitude. taking care of each and every thing, every concrete thing, and yet they don't cling to that kind of activity. So both liberation and manifestation are there. That is our way of practice. We have five more minutes. Let me start to read the first sentence in the next section, page 7. An ancient Buddha said, The entire great earth is the true human body.

[80:13]

The entire great earth is the great gate of revelation. the entire great earth is the single eye of Vairochana. The entire great earth is the Dharma body of the Self. Actually, this is not one person's saying, but Dogen Zenji collects these sayings from different people's sayings. And this is all about How we, the person in the mountain, walk in the mountain, and what is the relation between the person in the mountain and the mountain, or the person in the world and the world as a whole. How these two work as a zenki or total function, working as one.

[81:16]

Maybe that's all I have to say now, so I wish to continue to read from here in the afternoon.

[81:30]