2012.07.29-serial.00137

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It's amazing we have so many people. Well, during this Genzo-e session, we are going to study Shobo Genzo Yui Butsu Yo Butsu, or For some reason, this is kind of a unique fascicle or chapter of Shofo Genzo. This time, we are going to use my own translation. In order to make my understanding clear, I had to translate by myself. this fascicle and this expression, yojibutsu-yobutsu, came from the Lotus Sutra.

[01:14]

So I talk about Dogen and Lotus Sutra as a kind of introduction to this fascicle. In the hundred, I think, in the very beginning, it said, thirty-eighth versicle of Shobo Genzo, the Dharma I treasure, only a Buddha together with the Buddha. First of all, this number, thirty-three, is a kind of a mystery. Pardon? Thirty-eight. Thirty-eight. I'm sorry. My mind is mysterious. If you know how Shobo Genzo are written, traditionally it says, first Dogen Zenji wrote 75 fascicles, probably before 1246.

[02:23]

Once he compiled 75 volumes, he wanted to make it 100. So he started a new collection of Shobo Genzo, and he wrote 12. The 12th fascicle of the 12th the physical version of Shobo Genzo is Hachidai Nengaku or Eight Awakenings of Great Being and that was his final writing so he couldn't complete 100 collections so professionalists said we have 75 plus 12 That makes 87. But this is not only the collection of Shobo Genzo.

[03:33]

There are another one. 60 volumes of Shobo Genzo and plus 28. That makes 88. Anyway, we don't know how this one, 60 plus 28, was made. Traditionally, that means we don't know. It's said, you know, after Dogen Zenji died, there is a kind of a conflict at Eheiji in the time of third and fourth Abbot, that was Gikai and Gien. After second Abbot, Ejo retired. These two kind of groups had conflict. And Gikai was kind of kicked out from Eheiji.

[04:36]

I don't know if he was kicked out or left by himself, but he moved from Eheiji to Daijoji in Kanazawa. That is the first separation in Sotozen tradition. Gikai, this person, GM, became the fourth abbot. And this person died 13, 14, I think. When this fourth abbot of Eheiji passed away, it said Eheiji was half broken. You know, the main buildings were burned. And this is the fourth. And the fifth abbot of Eheji was Gi-un. Gi-un was not Gi-en's disciple. But Gi-un was a disciple of Ja-ku-en.

[05:38]

Jaquen was not a Japanese. He was a Chinese person. He practiced with Dogen, Dogen Zenji, at Tienton Monastery in China. So he was a Chinese. But after their teacher, Tienton Rujin, or Tendo Nyojo Zenji, passed away, Dogen Zenji was already returned to Japan. This person, Jaquen, he was still very young. went to Japan to practice with Dogen. And this person, Zakuen, was a very quiet person. He didn't write anything, at least nothing remained, even one verse. But after Dogen passed away, Zakuen left Heiji and practiced by himself in the remote mountains.

[06:43]

And later, the place where Gyakuyan practiced became Hokyo-ji. This is not far from Eheiji. It's in Ono City. Hokyo-ji is still there. But, because of Feng Jian, passed away, Eheiji was not in a good shape. So Gien was invited to take over 5th Avot, 5th Avot of Eheiji. At that time it said that temple buildings are half broken or burned and they didn't have manuscript of Shobo Genzo. Shobo Genzo was lost. maybe burned, or maybe someone took. So Giun Zenji collected as many fascicles of Shobo Genzo.

[07:45]

And it is said that when Giun collected those fascicles, it became 60. I mean, he made 60 fascicle versions. No one knows why, but 28th was separated, divided, and stored at Eheiji for some reason. We don't know. But according to Menzan, the 17th, 18th century, very important Soto Zen monk scholar, These 28 need to be stored separately because within these fascicles, Dogen criticized many of Rinzai masters or other Buddhist traditions.

[08:53]

We don't know if that is true or not. But Yoibutsu Yobutsu is part of these 28 collection. Anyway, in the history of Eheiji, after Gion, for several hundred years, the abaci of Eheiji were taking place from Gion's lineage. And, you know, when Gikai left to Daijoji, Rikai's disciple was Keizan. And Keizan founded Soji-ji after he left Daijo-ji. And Keizan's lineage became mainstream of Soto Zen. So Ehe-ji was kind of a small lineage.

[09:56]

That's why the problem between Ehe-ji and Soji-ji still continues. That means, because Eheiji was founded by Dogen Zenji, and Sojiji was, so Eheiji has more, kind of an authority, but Sojiji has much more power. These two, difficult, these two, you know, things get together. So, Sojiji and Eheiji still have a conflict, even today. Anyway, so Yoibutsu Yobutsu is a part of this 28th Vespers collection. And this collection is called Himitsu Shobo Genzo. Himitsu means secret. Somehow, these 28 fascicles are almost hidden at the storage of Eheiji.

[11:04]

But later, in the 17th, 18th, 19th century, the Sotozen monk scholars wanted to make a perfect collection of Shobo Genzo. and they collect all possible manuscripts written by Dogen Zenji. And somehow they put everything together and made 95 physical versions. To do so, they include the Dogen's writings, which is never considered to be a part of Shobo Genzo. such as Bendowa. Bendowa was not written as a part of Shobo Genzo. Actually, Bendowa was lost for several hundred years until 17th century. No one knew where Bendowa was. But in the 1995 version, bento was included.

[12:16]

Since then, bento was considered a part of shofu genzo. And another one is jikuinmon. That is Dogen's instruction for the people working in the kitchen. And Dogen said, you should not call rice as rice. You should call rice is kome, or kome in Japanese. But Dogen said, don't call kome as kome. But you should call kome as okome. It's a polite way of calling anything in Japanese. Anyway, that is not shogogenzo. That is a kind of a shingi. But anyway, those monk scholars in the 17th, 18th century collected all those possible manuscripts written by Dogen and made 95 physical versions to make it as close as to 100.

[13:20]

But they couldn't find five more. Anyways, but, you know, In this collection, there is only 28. So, where 38, the number 38 came from, we don't know. Maybe this was not by, this number 38 was not by Dogen, but some people later in the process of working this kind of compilation. Mainly, we study Shobo-genzo on these collections. That means Yoibutsu-yobutsu is not studied so much because it was hidden until 17th century.

[14:23]

So, you know, there in Japan, there is a collection of commentaries of Shobo-genzo made before Meiji. Meiji is 1868. Meiji restoration happened. So that means before Tokugawa or Edo period, there are many people made commentaries on Shobo Genzo. Among and the collection of all the commentary on Shobo Genzo made before this age, was included in this collection. It has ten volumes, and there are many, but the commentary on Yuibutsu and Yobutsu before Meiji is only two. One by this person, Menzan, And another one, Menzan's, not, this is not correct.

[15:31]

This is not Menzan's commentary. But the commentary entitled Monge was made actually by Menzan's disciple, not by Menzan. And another one is called, entitled Shiki. This was made by a monk named Zō Kai. So, in that collection of commentaries on Shōhō-genzo, we only find two of them. So, this fascicle, Yūigutsu-yōbutu, is not so much studied. And even after Meiji, Complete commentary on Yuibutsu Yobutsu, I found, was only one. Attempt two.

[16:32]

One by Kishizawa Ian Roshi. He's a very well-known modern Japanese Sōtōzen priest, and also he was a great scholar. And he gave lectures on the entire 95th fascicle version of Shōbō Genzo. And a collection of his Teishō on Shōbō Genzo, on 95th fascicle, was published. And it has 24 volumes. It's huge volumes. And so, Kishidawa Roshi gave a teisho, lectures, on this fashikufu. And another one is not known so well, but was made by Okada. Gifu.

[17:34]

He was not He was a priest, but he was not a master. He was a scholar. He was the president of Komazawa University. And he made almost an entire fascicle of Shobo Genzo that has eight volumes. And part of it was Yoibutsu Yobutsu. So there are so many commentaries on Yoibutsu Yobutsu. So it's a kind of difficult, or more difficult, to study Yueyue Buziopto even in Japanese. You know, for example, Bendowa or Genjokuan, there are tons of commentaries by before Meiji or after Meiji. But on this fascicle, there aren't so many. So, that is one difficulty to study Yuyukutsu Yobutsu.

[18:42]

And when we, even not read it, but when we see the writing in Japanese, the manuscript in Japanese, we see, you know, this is different from other fascicles of Shobo Genzo. Because this versicle is mainly written in kana, hiragana or katakana. I think originally it was written in katakana. And some kanji or Chinese characters. But in other versicles of Shobo Genzo, there are many Chinese characters and sometimes he quotes from a Chinese text. without translating. But this is very Japanese, mainly written in this text in hiragana. And that doesn't necessarily make it easy to read.

[19:52]

Because hiragana is phonetic, only sound, so here we should cut the sentence It's kind of difficult to judge. There's no, you know, punctuation in there. So, I cannot read that kind of manuscript. So I have to trust the scholars. And we, now, we have a collection of Shobo Genzo, you know, made by Komatsuwa scholars, Sotozen scholars. And that's why we can read this manuscript. Anyway, that is a unique point of the Yobutsu. And another important point about this fascicle is, this fascicle is traditionally, but in this case traditionally from Menzan,

[20:59]

This first school is about dharma transmission, or shihō. Shihō means dharma transmission. But when I read This first school, Yoyobutsu Yobutsu, I didn't understand why this is about dharma transmission for many years. But this person, Okada Gifu, who was the president of Komazawa University, he how can I say, he categorized all 95 particles of Shobo Genzo into, I think, 15 categories, depending upon about which, on which topic Dogen is talking about.

[22:03]

And one of those categories is about Shihō, or Dharma transmission. And according to this person, Okada Gihō, Other fascicles on dharma transmissions are, there are nine, and Uyghur is the last one. Other eight are kind of easy to understand why they, this person, thought these are about dharma transmission. The first two are kesakudoku and denne. Kesakudoku is the virtue of okesa. And denne is transmission robe. So, you know, robe was used as a symbol of dharma transmission.

[23:08]

So these are obviously about dharma transmission. And third one is shisho. Shisho is a transmission document. When we receive Dharma transmission, we receive shisho, in which the lineage of ancestors from Shakyamuni is written. So that is also very clear. This is about transmission. And third, The fourth is jyuki. This is also an expression from the Lotus Sutra. That means prediction. You know, as I talked this morning, a young person, Sumedha, received a prediction from Deepankara Buddha.

[24:15]

So this is also kind of a transmission. And the fifth is kato. Kato is, in English, entanglement. Katsu is kuzu, you know, the plant, kuzu. It's a kind of vine. And also, to is fuji, that is wisteria. Both are vines. And kato usually has a negative meaning, that means entanglement. When we have problems with other people, we have kato, entanglement. But Rogen Zen uses this word in a very positive way. Kato as a dharma transmission. In that way, you know, Buddha awakened and

[25:21]

Mahakasyapa, somehow Buddha's awakening and Mahakasyapa's awakening become like a vine and we don't know which is which, which is whose, which awakening is whose awakening. They are all entangled from Shakyamuni to our generations. He used this image of entanglement as, you know, each person as separate individual people and yet their awakening is the same, all combined, entangled, and we cannot see this part is this person's and that part is that person's. And in this chapter, Dogen mainly discussed about Dharma transmission between Bodhidharma and Second Ancestor Kyuika or Eka in Japanese. When Bodhidharma was old and he wanted to go back to India, he asked four of his disciples to say something about their understanding, and the first three people said something, but the last person, Huiko or Eka, didn't say anything but made prostration, and Bodhidharma said,

[26:50]

you know, you receive my marrow. That is a famous story. So, traditionally, always traditionally, that means who said so? That means we don't know who said so. said, you know, the shuiko, or the second ancestor's understanding was deepest, that five bodhidharma said, shuiko received the marrow of bodhidharma. But Dogen Zenji was against that traditional understanding. He said, all those four people are equal, you know, skin, flesh, bone, and marrow. It's not... in the depth there's no such separation or classification. But they are all received part of Bodhidharma.

[27:55]

So it's a kind of a unique interpretation of this transmission. So Kato is about transmission that is also very clear. And six is Menju. Menju is face-to-face transmission. And in this fascicle, Dogen wrote about his experience with his own teacher, Tendo Nyojo Zenji. When he first met with Nyojo, Dogen made prostration, and at that time, Nyojo said the dharma gate of face-to-face transmission is now completed. So this is also about transmission.

[29:01]

And the seventh is udon, udonge. Udonge is a udonbara flower. And, of course, this is about the story of the Arvatara's mission between Shakyamuni and Mahakasyapa. When Buddha was sitting on the seat, he just picked up a stalk of flower. This flower is called Udonge, or Udonvara. And, without saying anything, He just looked at this flower, but people in the assembly didn't understand, but only Mahakasyapa smiled. At that time, Buddha said, I have Shobo Genzo Neham Myosin, the true Dharma eye, the wondrous mind in nirvana, and I

[30:10]

entrust this to Mahakasyapa. So this is a kind of same kind of story with Bodhidharma and second ancestor's transmission. The Dharma is transmitted without speaking. So that is origin from heart to heart transmission. So this is also very clear. Udonge is about transmission. And eighth is ha-u. Ha-u means ball. Oryoki ball. And Oryoki ball was also used as a symbol of transmission from the time of sixth ancestor. I think you know that story. the transmission from the fifth ancestor to the sixth ancestor, Huinan. Huinan received the robe, okesa, and a bowl.

[31:17]

So this is also about transmission. So all those eight fascicles are very clearly about transmission, dharma transmission. But I didn't understand why Yuyi-butsu-yobutsu is written about or on that transmission for many years. Probably, I still don't understand why. But that is what I think, at least to me, one point of studying this versicle. Why this is, this Yojibutsu is about transmission. That is another point. Keep in mind. So, in the very beginning, I'd like to introduce what Menzen said about this versicle.

[32:24]

And he clearly said, this is about Dharma transmission. Menzen wrote summary of each, each fast course. Very short summary. And he composed a verse, praising verse, of the fast course. And his summary and praising verse, his menzans, is as follows. First summary. Menzan said about this Yoibutsu-yobutsu. This is my very rough translation, and I didn't ask anyone to edit, so English is not good. So you can edit by yourself. So Menzan said, this first group is about we should not be lacking

[33:36]

we should not be lacking in carefulness and whole-heartedness regarding identity of verification of the Master and the disciple. Therefore, those who receive the transmission because of the Master's power, or for gaining some benefit, or because of worldly sense of obligation or duty, are not legitimate heirs. Those who receive the transmission simply because of Dharma, as Dogenzen discusses in this fascicle. So, well, let me finish this summary.

[34:42]

The teacher and the disciple who are legitimate successors of the Buddha are called yuibutsu, yobutsu. So Mendan said, the teacher and disciples in Dharma transmission are called teacher is yuibutsu and disciple is yobutsu. So, only Buddha together with Buddha. So, in Mendon's understanding, this yuibutsu and yobutsu are only Buddha, only a Buddha together with a Buddha refer to teacher and disciple in Dharma transmission. So, he said, the teacher and the disciple who are legitimate successors of the Buddha are called Yuyibutsu, Yobutsu, who are only a Buddha together with the Buddha.

[35:46]

If not, they are completely Yuyibon, Yobon. Yuyibon, he changed Buddha into Bon. instead of u-i-bong-yo-bong. Bong is an abbreviation of bong-pu. Bong-pu means deluded human beings. Deluded human beings. So, if we, you know, if those teachers and disciples really transmit Dharma, if the disciples receive real Dharma, true Dharma from the teacher, then they are yui-butsu, yo-butsu.

[36:49]

Both are Buddhas. Only Buddha, together with the Buddha. I think this means, at the time of Menzan, there were, even maybe today, still, some disciples or some students received transmission because the Master had a big temple. That is about when Menzan said, Those who receive the transmission because of the master's power, or for gaining some benefit, like if the person received a transmission from that teacher, maybe he, the person, the disciple, could take over a big temple. That kind of motivation. or not for the sake of power or benefit, but in some cases they give or receive transmission because of some worldly obligation.

[38:03]

But men criticize that kind of phenomena. happening in his time. So, this transmission should be really transmission of Dharma. So, according to Mendan, Dogen Zenji is writing in this fascicle, Yuibutsu Yobutsu, is what is the Dharma that is transmitted from the legitimate teacher to legitimate disciple. And his praising verse on this fascicle is as follows. The blood vein from vulture pig continues throughout thousands of carcasses.

[39:13]

Blood vein, that refers to kechinyaku, you know, the lineage. When we receive the precept, we receive the kechimaku, or lineage paper. It fits, you know, from the red circle, you know, Shakyamuni's name is here, and it goes through our ancestors, and finally our name, and this goes back to the original Saku. This is the idea of Dharma transmission. And this, what Menzan said, is the blood vein, this red line is blood vein, from Vulture Peak. So it started from Vulture Peak. Vulture Peak refers to the place where the Lotus Sutra was expanded.

[40:14]

So it came from the vulture pig. Continues throughout thousands of kalpas, not only two thousand years, but thousands of kalpas it continues. Those who transmit the Dharma, transmit the Dharma, hold up the Dharma lamp until the endless future. So we should, if we are, let's say, a Dharma descendant of Buddha or Bodhidharma or Dogen, we should hold up this same Dharma expounded by Shakyamuni. So hold up the Dharma lamp until the endless future. That is our responsibility if we received Dharma transmission.

[41:17]

So, if there is the slightest deviation right here, within this transmission, we should feel ashamed as a monk who seeks fame and profit. Let me read the entire verse. The blood vein from Vulture Peak continues throughout thousands of kalpas. Those who transmit the Dharma hold up the Dharma lamp until the endless future. If there is the slightest deviation right here, we should feel ashamed as a monk who seeks fame and profit. So he, Menzang, requested us to receive the Dharma that was transmitted from Shakyamuni to Mahakasyapa and go through Bodhidharma and Dogenzenji and to us.

[42:25]

Otherwise, we cannot call ourselves as the Dharma Heirs of Shakyamuni. Anyway, this is Renzan's summary of this first group. Next, I'd like to talk about Dogen and the Lotus Sutra. Dogen Zenji was originally ordained as a Buddhist monk in Tendai tradition in Japan. In Tendai school, the entire teaching was based on the Lotus Sutra, especially the understanding of the Lotus Sutra by Tendai Chi-I. Chi, or C-H-I, I forget, but in Japanese, I'm sure his name is Chin-hi.

[43:38]

the great Tendai master who wrote commentaries on the Lotus Sutra and also Makashikan. Makashikan is shamatha and vipashana and maka is maha, big, large, great. Great shamatha and vipashana or stopping and seeing. That is the main teaching of Tendai school because Dogen was ordained as a Tendai monk until he left Tendai school and started to practice Zen. The main teaching he studied was about the Lotus Sutra. So the Lotus Sutra was very important for him. And even after he started to practice Zen and received a transmission from a Chinese Zen master, Nyojo Zenji, it seems Dogen Zenji continued to study the Lotus Sutra.

[44:58]

And in Shobo Genzo, he often quotes from the Lotus Sutra. According to scholars, I never try to how many times Dogen quotes Lotus Sutra in Shobo Genzo, but scholars do. And according to the scholars, Dogen quotes the Lotus Sutra 51 times. And in 27 fascicles, out of 95. I think it means quite often. So, even after he started to practice Zen and he became a Zen master, for him, the Lotus Sutra was very important. And he often quoted the Lotus Sutra.

[46:02]

And even right before his death, when he was dying, You know, he became sick in 1253. He left Heiji and went to Kyoto and stayed at a lay student of Dogen whose name was Kakumen. And a few days before he passed away, he walked around the room he was lying down and he chanted the part of the Lotus Sutra. And according to his Dogen's biography, the part of the Lotus Sutra he chanted, right before his death, is part of Chapter 21.

[47:03]

The title is Divine Power, Divine Powers of the Tathagata, or in Japanese, Nyorai Jinriki Hon, and what he chanted. If you have this book, page 347, the paragraph says, therefore, after the extinction of the Tathagata, you should all wholeheartedly embrace read, and recite, explain, and copy, and practice it. It means this sutra, Rota Sutra.

[48:12]

As you have been taught, in any land, wherever anyone accepts and embraces, reads, and recites, explains, and copies, and practices it. This is, this it is, again, Rota Sutra. As taught, or wherever a volume of the Sutra is kept, wherever a volume of the Sutra is kept, whether in a garden, or in a woods, or under a tree, or in a monk's cell, or a layman's house, or in a palace, or in a mountain valley, or an open field, that means everywhere, wherever there.

[49:16]

In all these places, You should put up a stupa. You should build a stupa and make offerings. So, everywhere, anywhere, we should build a stupa and make offerings. Why? Because you should understand that all such places are places of the way. In this case, this way means awakening. Anuttara Samyaksa Bodhi. So place of the way refers to the place where Buddha sat under Bodhi tree when he attained awakening. The original word for this place of the way is do or jo. Japanese word dojo is used where we practice something like martial arts or other Japanese arts are called dojo.

[50:39]

So we think dojo is a kind of a place for practice but originally as a Buddhist term dojo means the place of awakening. not a place of practice. So this refers to where Buddha awakened under the Bodhi tree. That means this paragraph in the Lotus Sutra is saying is wherever there are people who accept, read, study and practice the Lotus Sutra, and the Lotus Sutra is stored, where Buddha attained awakening. So we have to make veneration and build a stupa. Stupa doesn't necessarily mean a building. That means our practice can be a stupa. So, you should understand that all such places are places of the way.

[51:48]

They are where the Buddha attained supreme awakening, Anuttara Samyak's body. They are where the Buddha turned the Dharma, Dharma Wheel. They are where the Buddhas reach complete nirvana. So not only the Buddha Gaya, where Buddha attained awakening, but Buddha turned the first Dharma Wheel at the Deer Park to the five monks, and where in Kushinagara, Buddha entered nirvana. So all those people who fear the Lotus Sutra are there stored and studied and practiced is the sacred place of Shakyamuni. Where Shakyamuni attained awakening and turned the first dharma wheel and entered nirvana.

[52:53]

So we should venerate all those places which has the Rota Sutra. But I think The reason why Dogen chanted this part is not necessarily in the written scripture called Lotus Sutra. But Lotus Sutra for Dogen means much broader or larger meaning. And that is what is, I think, that is what is written in this Yunibutsu-yobutsu fascicle. 31 minutes. I'd like to talk a little more about Dogen and the Lotus Sutra. But to talk about the Lotus Sutra is a kind of a challenge.

[53:58]

Someone said, I don't remember who, probably Jim, said a friend, Maezumi Roshi, talked about koans. People were excited. But when he started to talk about Dogen, people started to sleep. And Taigen Ranleyton wrote a book about Dogen and the Lotus Sutra. And in part of his book, Taigen wrote, Suzuki Roshi gave a series of talks on the Lotus Sutra. For more than one year, from 1968 to 1969, at Tasahara, most of the students found the dogs were dry and deadly dull. So the combination of Dogen and Lotus can be very boring.

[55:06]

So I try to make it more kind of interesting. But I'm not sure I can be successful or not. Again, traditionally. Traditionally from Tendai Chigi. Lotus Sutra has 28 chapters. and it's separated into two parts. One is, the first one is called, let's see, in Japanese, shakumon. Another is, the second is called honmon. And Taigen translates shakumon as a trace teaching. Trace, I think. And this one as an origin teaching.

[56:13]

I don't know what trace teaching means. But anyway, the most important chapter in the first half is chapter two, Hōben Hon. Hōben means utāyā, or skillful means. And the center of second part of the Lotus Sutra is Jūryōhun in Japanese. Jūryō means life span. So, Tathagata's life span. These two are main teachings. These two chapters are main teachings of the Lotus Sutra.

[57:17]

And in Chapter 2, this expression, only Buddha together with the Buddha appeared. In the first chapter, I'm sorry, of the Lotus Sutra, Shakyamuni Buddha didn't say anything. He was just sitting and emitted the light from his forehead and illuminated the entire, it doesn't say the entire universe, but the eastern part of the universe. But Dogen said the eastern part of the universe means the entire universe. Anyway, so this light in Japanese was called Kōmyō.

[58:19]

My translation is radiant light. And Dogen Zenji wrote a chapter of Shōbō Genzo entitled Kōmyō. And when he talks about this radiant light, he refers to this light emitted by Shakyamuni in the first chapter of the Rota Sutra. So, first of all, this entire Dharma world is illuminated by Buddha's radiant light. That is, important point to keep in our mind to understand the Lotus Sutra. And, pardon me, what did I say? It is important to keep this in mind that when Dogen talks about radiant light, he refers to this light in the first chapter of the Lotus Sutra.

[59:35]

And then people like Manjushri and Maitreya start to question what this radiant light means. And Manjushri said this is a sign that the Buddha is going to expound the final teaching, the ultimate Mahayana teaching, called the Sadharma Tunarika. That is, Myoho Renge Kyo. But in the first chapter, Buddha didn't say anything. But in the second chapter, in the Ho Ben Hon, he started to talk. And so, in that case, Shariputra, Shaliputra, one of the ten major disciples of Shakyamuni, asked Buddha to expound that teaching.

[60:47]

But Buddha rejected, said, no one could understand. But Shaliputra asked three times, and Buddha finally started to talk. And that talk, what he, Buddha, said is about yoibutsu-yobutsu. And that part is quoted by Dogen Zenji in Shobo Jisso. Shobo Jisso. Shobo means all beings. And this So is true reality. So true reality of all beings. This is another chapter of Shobo Genzo. So in order to understand Yui Butsu Yo Butsu, it's kind of important to study together with Shobo Jiso.

[62:01]

Because, you know, this expression, yoibutsu, yoibutsu, came up with this word, shofu wa jisho. Chapter 2, yes. What the Buddha said is, Only a Buddha, together with a Buddha, nai no means no means be able to and gu jin is penetrate sho ho ji so true reality of all beings so this sentence means only a buddha together with a buddha can penetrate

[63:28]

true reality of all beings. So this means only Buddha, no human beings can penetrate this true reality of all beings. But later, in the same chapter, all Buddhas appeared to this world in order to open and show, and allow people to realize, and allow people to enter Buddha's darshanam, or Buddha's insight. And Buddha's insight means shofo jisho. So there is a kind of contradiction. First Buddha said, only Buddha can penetrate this true reality of all beings. But later he said, all Buddhas appear to this world to teach this true reality of all beings, to show this reality to all beings, and allow them to give awakening to this reality.

[64:49]

contradiction. Only Buddha together with Buddha. No human beings. But to teach human beings or living beings to teach this reality is Buddha's job. So it's kind of an impossible job. But anyway, what this means is the point of one of the most important points of the Lotus Sutra. Right after this sentence, the Lotus Sutra says about this plurality of all beings. It says, there are ten suchnesses. 十如是, or ten suchnesses.

[65:51]

And those ten are, let me write in Japanese, So, first, so, sho, tai, riki, sa, and in, en, ka, ho, and ah, hon, matsu, ku, kyo, To, sou, is a form. And shou is nature. And tai is essence or substance or body. And reiki is power or strength, maybe power or energy.

[66:55]

And sa is function. And in is cause. En is condition. And ka is result. And ho, ka. Ka, K-A. And ho is, what is ho in this translation? Recompense. Hō, ri, kon, pen, su. Recompense. And the final one, hōn, matsu, kyō,

[67:56]

To in this translation is ultimate identity from the beginning to the end. These are called ten suchness, ten suchnesses. And this is the true reality of all beings. ultimate identity from the beginning to the end. From the beginning to the end means from number one to number nine. Can you also translate and read 3.5? So, this is the fact that the true reality of all beings means.

[69:19]

That means, each and every being has those ten suchnesses. Pardon? Suchness. Suchness. S-u-e. Suchness. Ten suchnesses. So, what this means... So, what this means... And this is my understanding of what this means. I think the first five refer to the uniqueness of each individual being.

[70:23]

Each person, each thing, has its own form, its own unique nature, its own unique body or substance, and its own unique energy or power, and function. Each and everything, each and every being, each and every one of us has our own uniqueness. So this is a kind of individuality. And next four until nine means these unique beings, each and every unique beings can exist only within relation, only within relationship with others. That means, I think, yin and ka, cause and result,

[71:30]

is a relation within time. You know, the most best example or most example often used is a plant. For example, within time some seed is planted That is a cause. Seed is a cause. And when, you know, even when seed was planted, if certain conditions are not there, seed cannot, you know, what is the word, sprout. So seed needs water, humidity, or sunlight, or certain temperature, and other elements.

[72:31]

If those conditions are there, seeds can start to grow and finally become a big tree. And tree has a bloom flower and bear fruits. and within the fruit there's a seed for the next generation and the life cycle continues. In this case, you know, this seed is a cause and fruits is the result. Actually, Japanese word, ka, means fruits. That means result. So, in, or cause and result, is a relation between, within time, within time. And, this one, in, condition, means in order to, in order, you know, this seed to sprout, there are certain conditions.

[73:46]

not only the conditions which support this seed, actively support this seed to grow, but something, everything, everything negative that doesn't happen is supporting this seed. For example, if right after this seed was planted, if a bird came to pick up, then the seed cannot grow. So all the birds who didn't come to eat this seed, support this seed. Everything that didn't happen, not only everything that support this seed actively, all things that didn't happen to destroy the seed, disturb the seed, support the seed. That means everything, really everything. So this end or condition means this entire space.

[74:48]

All beings, this entire space, is supporting this seed to grow. And it continues, and when the plant fully matures, it has flowers and fruits, when the flower blooms. The kind of a purpose or meaning of these plants for this activity is to continue the life to the next generation. But not only that, but also these flowers or fruits offer something to other beings. You know, the flower When flower blooms, the bees or other insects come to get nectar, and the nectar nurtures those living beings.

[76:01]

So this plant has something to offer when it's fully matured. So when it's not matured, the plant needs support from all beings. But when the plant is matured enough, they have something to offer. And that is this ho means recompense. that, you know, this plant is the most understandable example, but this is not about the plants. But this is about bodhisattva practice. When we are a bodhicitta, we need support from teachers and co-practitioners and degisht, all beings. and support by other people. So we receive support.

[77:07]

But when we matured, we can offer something. And when a Bodhisattva became a Buddha, Buddha can really offer and support all beings. That is what this means. So this recompense means in terms of the Lotus Sutra, Becoming Buddha. And Becoming Buddha is not the end of this story. When Shakyamuni became Buddha, he met with a starting point of teaching. So Buddha continued to practice and teach. So now Buddha offers Dharma to all beings. So when we are baby bodhisattva, we receive teaching, Dharma, from many people or many things. And we study and continue.

[78:10]

And when we are fully awakened, we have something to offer. So this aim or condition and whole recompense is a relation within the space. That is my understanding. Cause and result is relation within time. And condition and recompense is relation with other beings in the space. That is my understanding. So each and every being has its own unique characteristics. But that unique thing, unique beings, can only exist within relationship with others throughout time and space. That is, to me, what these ten fatnesses mean.

[79:12]

And the last one, ultimate identity from the beginning and end, is these nine. These nine satchmesis are not nine independent items, but this is just one thing. These nine are just one thing. That means, you know, all each characteristics of each beings and relation through time and through space You know, this is one thing. Nothing is separate from other things. Please. Can you say why they're called suchnesses? Why is it called suchness?

[80:16]

Suchness means this is not our perception. Human perception. or interpretation or evaluation. These are the things as they are. It's not observation from human beings. That is the fact why Buddha said this sadness or true reality can be penetrated only by Buddhas, no human beings. So this is another important point. But my question was, you know, this is very understandable reality to us. Why we cannot understand? I think we can understand this, and this is kind of true. But the Lotus Sutra said, only Buddha, together with the Buddha, means no human beings, means that we are, that I'm talking now, and that you are listening, then we are thinking, and we think this is understandable or reasonable.

[81:38]

That is our thinking. But we cannot really see the reality of this entirety of reality. because we are part of it. We are always inside. So we see the world and history only from my point of view. So we cannot really see the things as they are. We can see from my karmic point of view. So even though this is written in Buddhist scriptures, this is kind of an explanation by using concept. So when I'm talking this, I'm talking about my understanding of what is written in the Lotus Sutra. We don't really see the reality of those ten suchnesses. We can understand, we can interpret, and we can accept.

[82:40]

But that is all what we do from my point of view. Because we are Buddhists, we try to accept what is written in the Buddhist scriptures. And we think, I understand. But that is already the concept within Buddhist tradition. We don't really see this reality, the entire reality. So this is an important point. We don't see it, but we can experience it. Because to see, we need to be outside of this entirety, and it's not possible. And I think this is an essential teaching in the Chapter 2 of the Lothar Sutra.

[83:41]

And the teaching in the Nyorai Juryōhon, or Tathagata's Lifespan, should we get together. That means we are living, or we are born, live for a while, and die for a certain period of time, and we are born in a certain place, and we move around, and we die at a certain place. And in the case of Buddha, when, as I said this morning, Sumedha aroused bodhicitta, and hundred lifetimes and after that he was born as a prince in India and he practiced within this lifetime and he attained the Buddhahood.

[84:46]

When we see only this part, Shakyamuni is a Nirvana Kaya. But when we see this entirety, Shakyamuni is a Sambhogakaya. But when we see a larger scale, as Nyorai Jiryōhon, or Tathagata's lifespan says, Buddha attained another Samyak-sambodhi in the beginning. This was not the starting point. So from the beginningless beginning until endless end, this is Buddha's life, within Buddha's eternal life. That is what the Tathagata's Lifespan, Chapter 16, is saying, basically.

[85:50]

That means within Buddha's eternal life, these things are happening. This is called Dharmakaya. Within Dharmakaya Buddha, Sambhogakaya starts to practice certain point. So Sambhogakaya has beginning, but Sambhogakaya has no end. But Nirvālakaya Buddha has birth and death, beginning and end. All those things, individual things, or individual beings, appear, stay for a while, changing their shape, and disappear within this Buddha's eternal lifespan. That is my understanding of the essential point of the Lotus Sutra, to make these two chapters together. So, not only Shakyamuni Buddha, but each and every one of us, even a seed of a plant, is the same.

[87:04]

We are born, live for a while, changing the shape, and disappear, of course. But this is happening within Dharmakaya Buddha. to understand what Dogen is writing in Geibutsu-yobutsu and also Shoko-jisho. Please. No end. Rakanta-bhagavata. It has no end. Please. No. Both kanji and probably katakana, not hiragana. I think so. It's very difficult to copy exactly the same, because we are not a copy machine.

[88:08]

Especially when there are some parts that are difficult to understand, we interpret and we think this is correct. Not dogma, but the writing was mistaken. And we interpret and try to copy in a way that makes sense to me. Well, there's some characteristics about Dogen's writing which must be reflected in those fascicles. So those fascicles are commonly considered as Dogen's, even though a small part of his own personal handwriting is still available. But the main part was copied. Yeah, I think Ujii, Fat Dogen wrote in Ujii is his insight about time in this framework.

[89:22]

I talk about Dogen's insight about time and its beings and space. Not today. I think it's time to stop talking and go to Dendo. Tomorrow morning I'm going to talk about fat dog and rod in the very beginning of Shoko Jiso.

[90:12]