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Good morning, everyone. Yesterday afternoon, I introduced some short part of Awakening of Faith to introduce the very basic idea of what is the Kaiin Zanmai, or Ocean Sea Samadhi is in the context of Chinese Buddhism. So I'd like to shortly briefly review it. And I think that Kaiin Zanmai and Dogen Zenji's Kaiin Zanmai is at least a little different. So I'd like to review a little about what I talked yesterday. That is, all of us, no matter how devoted we are,


we have so-called Buddha nature, or Tathagatagarbha. And another name of that Buddha nature is Shujo-shin, or mind of living beings, or Isshin, one mind, or Buddha nature. And this mind has a few different names, the same mind. That is, for example, Shinsho, mind nature, or Shintai, usually this time means body, but in this case, this is the essence, mind essence. Or Shingen, waterhead or source of Shin, mind, or mind as a water source,


or waterhead, or origin of the river. Those are the several names of this one mind. And when this mind is hidden within our delusion, it is called Hongaku. Hongaku, or original enlightenment. No matter how deluded we are, we have, our Hongaku is still there. And yet we don't see it, we don't find it, we are so deluded. So, first of all, we have to see, discover, that this one mind, or original enlightenment, or Buddha nature, is in here.


And we try to return that source. And that is our practice. And that process of returning and revealing original enlightenment is called Shikaku. And in the translation I used yesterday, this Shikaku is translated as a process of actualizing enlightenment. So this is a process. So this is basically what our practice means. First we need to find this one mind is within us. Then we need to return there. By eliminating the illusory thought, our thinking,


hide this original enlightenment, or mind, so we become free from our thought coming and going. That is the cause of the samsara. And those discriminating thinking was caused by the wind of ignorance. Kaiin Zanmai means the condition of the surface of the ocean is peaceful without any waves caused by ignorance. That is, in fact, Kaiin Zanmai, based on that teaching. And yesterday someone asked a question about the sudden enlightenment and gradual enlightenment, or gradual practice.


It also came from this framework. When we put emphasis on this original enlightenment, all beings have original enlightenment. If we put emphasis on this original enlightenment, then we are originally already enlightened. Without this process, enlightenment is already there. We need to find it, see it. And another gradual enlightenment or gradual practice is from here to there. According to the teachings, there are 52 stages, and it takes 3,000 great kalpas. That means almost forever. But still we can go.


So going through that process is a process of actualization of enlightenment. But that is the idea of gradual practice or gradual enlightenment. But in the case of Zen, the difference between this theory and Zen teaching is this can be done within this lifetime. It doesn't take forever. That means one of the very famous Zen sayings is Cho, Jiki, Nyu, Nyorai, Chin.


Ichi means one. Cho is transcend or jump over. And Jiki is directly. Nyu is enter. Nyorai is Tathagata. And Chin is like a ground or the rung. So this means with one jump, directly enter the rung of Tathagata. That means without going through this many processes or stages, within one jump we can return to the original enlightenment. That is what sudden enlightenment means. And other schools put emphasis on step-by-step practice. Each moment we need to polish the mirror.


So sudden enlightenment and gradual enlightenment came also based on this theory. And the famous Zen saying or almost like a catchphrase of Zen school, Zen teaching is Jikishi, Nishin, Kensho, Jotsu, Kyobe, Bezuden, and Furyumonji. If you study any books on Zen, you may find these famous sayings.


Jikishi Nishin directly points human mind or heart. And Kensho is seeing the nature, becoming Buddha. And outside of teaching, there is separate transmission. And without standing on or depending on or relying on words and letters, this is the very, very long Zen sayings. And in this case, this Nishin directly points out human or people's mind. And this mind means this mind. Directly points out this mind. And this Sho refers to this Sho, Shin Sho. So Kensho or seeing the mind nature means we discover this one mind


that is covered with dirt or dust. That is our discriminating mind. So these two came from this theory. And next two are saying from point of Zen. So they are Zen practices different from teaching. That means these are the theory based on written text or recorded teaching of Buddha, like a sutras. But in Zen, outside of that teaching, that written text or Buddha's words, that Shin is directly transmitted. So in Zen we transmit Buddha's heart or mind or Shin without relying on any words and letters.


So these first two shows their practice and teaching is based on this same theory. And yet in Zen we don't rely on this kind of theory. Zen teaching is not a theory like a chart or a map from the starting point to the goal. And there are certain things happening in each stages. But Zen teaching, that kind of things, is not matter. We directly experience this one mind, find it, and without relying on any words and letters. And the story of Dharma transmission from Buddha to Mahakasyapa, when he picked up a stalk of flower and Mahakasyapa smiled,


that is a symbol of Dharma transmission without using words. So Zen teaching is very basically based on this theory. But to me, Dogen Zenji's Samadhi is different from this theory. I mean, in this theory, the one mind or original enlightenment is hidden. Like an analogy is like a diamond is hidden, covered with rock and dust. So first we have to, this is one very well-known analogy of Buddha nature. So diamond is here, but we cannot see the beauty of diamond until we eliminate these rocks. But first of all, we have to discover this diamond there, within this dark rock.


Then we take this out and polish the diamond. Then it reveals the beauty of Buddha nature. That is one famous analogy of this practice. But Dogen Zenji's very well-known saying, or important point of his teaching and practice is, nothing is hidden. Nothing is hidden. So for him, Buddha nature is not something hidden. As he recorded in Tenzo Kyokun, about his conversation with Tenzo from Ayuwa Monastery, after he was in that conversation with Tenzo, Tenzo said, within the entire world, nothing is hidden. And after that, Dogen Zenji introduced one poem or verse by Shredo,


and that said, within all the waves, the moonlight is reflected. And each and every wave is like a jewel, very bright and beautiful. So, for him, this enlightenment, or true reality, is not something hidden. It is always revealed. And so, for him, as he discussed, in Kayin Zanmai, waves are important. His practice is not to stop the waves. Waves are very important. In order to reflect the moonlight, waves are necessary.


Waves and drops of water, as he said in the Tenzo Kyokun, in each and every drop of water, the boundless moonlight is reflected. And the tiny drop of water that is very impermanent, existing only a few seconds, the boundless moonlight is reflected, and that tiny drop of water becomes like a moon, bright like a moon. So, that is different to me. Nothing is hidden. And another thing is, as I said, his practice is not, or his samadhi,


his samadhi is not a training to cease the wind of ignorance and stop the waves. You know, in the very end of Genjo Koan, he introduced one koan story about the master said, no, one verse to the master Magu, that wind nature is ever-present and always there. And this wind is not the wind of ignorance. So, this is the difference. You know, these waves are not caused by the wind of ignorance, but he called this the wind of Buddha's family.


And that wind of Buddha's family allowed the mountain, the water in the river, into a, what? Cheese? Cream, cream. And that ground into gold. So, in Dogen Zen's Kainzanmai, wind is still blowing, but that wind is not wind of ignorance, but wind of Buddha's family. Actually, that wind is Buddha nature. That is, to me, that is the difference between this common understanding of Buddha nature and practice, based on that theory. For him, nothing is hidden, and our practice is not training to seize the waves.


We cannot practice without the waves. So, waves is really important to me. And that is one, two. Second analogy is the ocean and the wind, and the waves. And the third analogy of this practice is called Kyaku Jin Bon Noi. He also mentioned this in Kainzanmai. Kaku, or Kyaku. Jin, Bon Noi. Bon Noi is usually translated as delusion.


And Kyaku is like a visitor. And Jin is dust. So, this means that delusion is like a visitor. This is like a hotel or inn. And Buddha nature or one mind is like the host or owner of the inn. But Bon Noi or delusion is things coming and going. So, it's not intrinsic, inherent. It's accidental. So, we can stop the business when no visitors are coming. So, only the host, that is one mind, can stay there. But Dogen Zenji again uses this expression, Kyaku Jin,


delusion as a guest or visitor. That expression appears in Kainzanmai. For example, when he used this word negatively in Vendova, like when he said, mind is permanent and body is impermanent. It's like this one mind is permanent, but body and the thinking caused by our body and mind. So, this one mind is not a thinking mind. This mind doesn't think. But thinking mind is combined with body. So, thinking mind is impermanent. They are visitors. But this one mind is the host of the hotel.


And then the body, because body is important, sooner or later body is destroyed. Then this one mind moves to another body. That kind of idea of rebirth. And in one of the questions in Vendova, Dogen Zenji discussed that is not Buddhism. And this expression, Kyaku Jin, was used in that discussion. Anyway, so to me, Dogen Zenji's teaching and practice is at least a little bit different from common Zen teaching and practice based on this theory of Tathagatagarbha. Yes. Some people think so, but other people negate it.


So, there are many variations depending upon the people and schools. But this is a very root of that kind of theories. And almost all schools in Chinese, Zen, and other Buddhist schools are influenced by this theory. Chinese Buddhism meets Japanese Buddhism also. So, if Dogen Zenji didn't like this theory, he is a very unique person. Anyway, that is my introduction. I think now we are ready to start to read his writing of Kyaku Zen. This time, I use the translation done by Karl Wilf as a part of Soto School Shibu-cho translation project.


Because I don't think I can translate this again. And yet, there are some points I don't agree with Karl Wilf when I discuss about them. So, let me read the first paragraph. You all have the translation. Treasury of the Eye of the True Dharma, Book 13, Ocean, Sea, Samadhi To me, the Buddhas and the ancestors is always the Ocean, Sea, Samadhi. As they swim in this Samadhi, they have a time to teach, a time to verify, a time to practice.


Their virtue of walking on the ocean goes to its bottom. They walk on the ocean as walking the floor of the deepest ocean. To seek to cause the currents of birth and death to return the source is not what are you thinking. While previous penetrating the barriers and breaking down the sections, maybe the faces of the Buddhas and ancestors, they are rivers returning to the source of the Ocean, Sea, Samadhi. I hope you understand this. In the first sentence, Dogen Zen said, Buddhas and ancestors are kind Dharma, Ocean, Sea, Samadhi.


So Buddhas and ancestors themselves are Samadhi. Or we can say that Samadhi, kind Samadhi, is itself Buddhas and ancestors. This is a kind of strange logic to say a person is a Samadhi. But in the case of Dogen, we have to say so. I mean, Samadhi, usually we think, for example, in Genjo-ko and Dogen Zen, we can use the analogy of fish and birds swimming in the ocean and flying in the sky. And that ocean or sky is like a Samadhi.


And fish is swimming in that Samadhi. Dogen Zen said that fish and the ocean have no separation. Fish is life and ocean is life. And when fish leave the ocean, fish will die. So for the fish, ocean is life. And for the ocean, fish is life. So, you know, fish is life, is this entire ocean. So the Buddhas and ancestors, not only Buddhas and ancestors in the past, but when we practice Zazen, Dogen Zen called this Zazen at Jiju Zanmai or here, Kaiin Zanmai.


That is us. And in Bendo, at Jiju Zanmai, Dogen Zen says, when we sit, even for a short period of time, entire dharma world becomes enlightened. And all beings within that dharma world also reveal intimate enlightenment. So, in the case of Dogen Zen's teaching and practice, the self and all other beings are one, always together. In the case of the Tathagatagarbha teaching, we have to find something hidden inside of me. And we find it, and we eliminate our deluded thinking. So our practice can be done within me, to find something precious within me,


and to take something dusty within me. And that is the end of practice. And then we are enlightened. But the delusion and enlightenment in Dogen Zen's teaching are different. In the beginning of the Genjo Koan, Dogen Zen says, when we convey ourselves to all beings, all myriad things, and carry out practice, is delusion. This is his definition of what delusion is. And all beings, all myriad things, come toward the self, and carry out practice through the self, is realization. That is his definition of what is delusion, and what is realization. So realization or delusion is only within the relationship with self and all beings. It's not a matter of something hidden inside of me.


So no matter how hard we work inside of ourselves, it has nothing to do with Dogen Zen's delusion and realization. In his teaching, the delusion and realization is only within relationship with others, not something inside of myself. So our practice is not a treasure hunting of something hidden in ourselves. Our mind is so much dusty and full of garbage. But when we take all garbage out, then we can find something precious. If we think our Zen practice or meditation practice is to find that treasure hidden in the garbage, then that is not what Dogen taught. In relationship to all beings, all beings means everything?


Is there anything that is not all beings? Yes, everything. Including really everything. That is what Banpo means. Jiko and Banpo. Self and millions of dharmas. So not only people or not only living beings, but all beings. And all beings include something abstract, like the dharma. Or delusion, or enlightenment. Would you please repeat Dogen's definition of delusion and realization? This is my translation of Dogen's Genjoko. What he says is, Conveying ourselves or conveying the self toward all millions of dharmas or millions of things, all things. And carry out practice and enlightenment.


In this case, practice and enlightenment is one word. That is, shu-sho. Shu is practice. This, this sho is enlightenment or verification. So carry out practice, verification or enlightenment is delusion. And all millions of dharmas or things come toward the self. And carry out practice, verification or enlightenment is realization. So the delusion and enlightenment is how the self connects with others.


If we take ourselves toward all beings and try to fix it, try to see and understand and make, you know, this is the way all things should be. So I control and fix it. That is what we carry or convey ourselves toward all beings. And fix it, or put them in order. So this is, the self is active. But, in Dogen Zenji's definition of realization, all beings come toward us. So it's not the subject of this practice. It's not me. But all beings come toward me and allow me to practice.


So it's not a matter of I do something. But I can practice because of the support of all beings. So this is the difference of attitude toward the self and all the other things. To me this is very different from some, you know, hidden treasure inside of ourselves. Please. So if in practice you're going to experience samadhi, in this first sentence, it's not just samadhi, it's the ocean seal samadhi. And so that colors it in some way. In this case, this ocean seal, this ocean means this entire universe is the ocean in the case of Dogen. It's not the surface of our mind.


And in the next sentence he said, not only the surface. We need to also, not need, but we are also walking on the bottom of the ocean. So it's like the fish in the ocean. How does the seal affect it? Seal refers to, seal is like a reflection. This reflection shows this is not a fixed entity. But this is like images. That means impermanent. And there is no fixed entity. Other independent beings. But because of the things within this entire universe or entire ocean, things appear this way or that way.


That is what seal means. So within the ocean, depending upon the situation or condition, the relationship between self and the others are constantly changing. So there is no fixed entity as a self or as others. Sometimes, you know, now I am a speaker, so my responsibility is to speak, to talk something about Dogen. This kind of strange thing. But when I sit in the zendo, I am free from talking. Or when I am in the airplane, I am just a passenger. So in each situation, this person is different.


I am a Buddhist priest, so when in certain situations I have to behave as a Buddhist priest, but when I go shopping, I am not a Buddhist priest, but I am a customer. So this person, you know, changes. And we have to behave in different ways. When I am a tenzo, I just cook. But when I am a teacher, a speaker, I just speak. And depending upon the condition, self, or relationship between me and other people, I have to behave in different ways. And my responsibility is different. So this person is not fixed. That is like a reflection of the ocean. Please. But if your responsibility changes, and the practice is continuous, what is that?


In whatever situation or condition, my attitude needs to be the same. Whether you are a speaker or a customer. When I do shopping, or when I do teaching, my relation with me and people who are listening to my talk, and people who are at the shop, and my attitude toward the food ingredient, or fire, or water, that is samadhi. Does it make sense? Yes, thank you. So, the very first sentence of this Kailin Dharma, he said, Buddhas and ancestors are samadhi. That means there is no separation.


And second, he says, As they sin in this samadhi, so we are sinning within this samadhi. They have a time to teach, a time to verify, and a time to practice. Time to practice is shu. And time to verify is sho. And time to teach is kyo. Kyo is to teach, to practice, to verify. Another word, this is, teaching is not, probably what I'm doing can be called teaching. I try to express my understanding to share with other people. And shu is practice. And sho is verification.


Sometimes this is called enlightenment. This kyo, shu, shu or ryo, shugyo is practice. And kyo can be another word for kyo is sense. That means expanding, using words. Our practice is teaching or expanding or expressing Dharma. So using words and letters is important. Dogen Zenji really thinks how to use words to express Dharma is very important. And he said, unless we can express using words about what we experience, what we practice,


that experience or that practice or that activity is not real. Unless, until we can express using our own words, own expressions. That is what do-toku means. Dogen Zenji wrote a chapter of shogogen, entitled Do and Toku. This is dao or tao or way, but in this case this do is saying. And toku is attain or gain or being able to. So unless we do do-toku, express what we experience, that experience is not really experienced. So experience and expression of experience need to be together. So for him, not only teaching from like a teacher and student,


but expressing and sharing Dharma using words and letters is really important. And practice of course is important actual thing. And this verification, verification is a kind of strange word to use here. In this case, shu and sho is like a cause and result. Practice is cause and sho is result of practice. Actually this is an abbreviation of longer expression. That is mon, shi, shu, sho. This Chinese character sho itself means evidence, evidence or proof that verifies something.


And this mon is hearing. And shi is thinking. And shu is practice. And sho is the result of the practice. This is the process of our studying and practice. You know, first thing we do with hearing is some math teaching. We hear or read and study someone's teaching. In this case, Buddha's teaching. And we think of it, try to understand intellectually if it's right or not right. Or if it works to me or not. And then after thinking if it looks right and workable, doable to me, then we put that teaching into practice.


And after we practice, from our experiences, we really know that teaching was very true and workable. That is what this evidence or sho or verification means. So our practice, sho is the result of our practice. That is the meaning of shu and sho. So sho is the cause and sho is the result. And Fendogen Renzi says, practice and verification are one. That means within this practice, verification is already there. That means we don't need to wait until we finish practice and find that teaching is true. But our practice is itself verification.


Our experience is itself verification of Buddha's truth. We don't need to think anymore. We don't need to believe anymore because we experienced. And we know this is right, this is true, this is that. That is sho or teaching, practicing and verifying. So this entire process of studying, practicing, teaching and verifying, in our life, or in the process of our practice, or actually Fendogen Renzi said, these three are not three different things. But he, in Ehe Koroku, I have a copy of that Dharma Discourse, but I don't have time.


Not Dharma Discourse, but this is a Dharma Word. If you want to look up that Dharma Word, that is in Volume 9. And Dharma Word 11, Fendogen Renzi said, sho, teaching and practice and verification are really one thing. And practice is a practice of teaching and verification. And teaching is teaching of practice and verification. And verification is verification of teaching and practice. So those three should be always one in Fendogen's teaching. Teaching is not a stage like this process. In each and every activity, when I'm teaching, now I'm talking.


This talking is talking about my, what I practice, what I do, how we live, how I live. And that is my understanding of the reality or truth of Buddha's and Dogen's teaching. So within my talking, my practice is included. And what Buddha told and what Dogen told is there if, only if, what I'm talking is right or correct. It may be a mistake, so we have to be careful. Don't believe me. You have to check by yourself. It seems like going along in the same line that we were just talking about, with the practice and the teaching and the verification all being the same thing, it seems like included in that would be that there is, since,


it seems like, you know, they talk about, you know, stones, walls and trees, they're all easily expressing the true nature perfectly. So basically everything is samadhi. So then, it seems like, that's another way of saying that there's really no delusion, that it seems like each person is perfectly expressing all the experiences and everything. I think including our delusions. Our delusion is expressing something. Yes, because it's all, we've experienced in the past, there must be no other way of behaving with anyone other than the way we do. So it seems like, along with not only everything else, but people as well, are perfectly expressing themselves.


Basically from that fact. Within our practice. That's the fact he said in Jijū Dharma. When we sit, all beings, they will sit on intimate enlightenment. But the important point is within our practice. And then he says something strange. Their virtue of walking on the ocean, on the ocean means above the water surface. Go to its bottom. The one thing, you know, the common understanding of kind of mind, didn't mention the bottom. It's only the matter of the waves on the surface of the ocean. But Dogen Zenji pointed out, I don't mean look at the bottom of the ocean.


That means, on the surface, there is always waves. But waves is only, I don't know exactly how deep, but only 10 feet or so. Below the waves, the water is always peaceful, always calm. So on the bottom of the ocean, no wave. That means our practice is not only a matter of the waves on the ocean and stop the waves. But it's okay, there are waves on the surface. But we are settled down on the bottom of the ocean. To me, this is what Dogen Zenji expressed in Fukanza Zenji.


He explained how to think about the posture and breathing and about our mind. He just taught one koan, that is, think of not thinking. How do you think of not thinking? Beyond thinking. This is a kind of a kind of mind, this chapter itself, the kind of expression of what this means, actually, in our Zen. You know, on the surface of our mind, or the ocean, there is waves. You know, when Uchiyama Roshi, my teacher, explained about our Zen practice in the book Opening the Hand of Thought, he used this kind of diagram. And this is no thought, no thinking, and no perception.


We really just see. But when we start to sit, from the next moment, some thought arises. And he said, whenever we are aware, you know, we are intact with thinking, then we return to this line. Next moment, we might sleep, become sleepy, and start to sleep. And whenever we find we are sleeping, we wake up. And actually, our Zen is always the repetition of this wake up. And Uchiyama Roshi said, our goal, the purpose of our practice is to eliminate all those waves. These are the waves. And stay on this line.


But important point is to return to this line. So, within our Zen, there are waves. Our practice is not to eliminate all these waves and stay here. Uchiyama Roshi said, if our practice is to become no thought, then it's like a rock. You know, put a rock inside, next to me. Then rock is more enlightened than me. Perfectly enlightened, there is no thought. But because we have a brain, and the function of our brain is producing thinking, thought, and our practice does not stop the function of our brain. So, on the surface of our mind, there are still waves.


And sometimes the wave is really huge. And it happens so quickly. When I was young, I could think a lot of things. And also I could sleep. A lot. But when I'm aging, my brain doesn't work so quickly. So, it's like a throw. And the distance is not so big. So, to me, my Zen practice, after I became 60, is more peaceful. It doesn't mean I'm getting enlightened. It means I'm aging. I'm losing energy to create illusions. So, this energy and the ability to make something not real


is a very important and precious ability for human beings. You know, it, of course, creates samsara, but it also creates the vision or the direction for the future. Or, you know, the ability to write poems or stories or novels is all, you know, the function of that ability. To see something is not in front of me, but still, it's there. So, we don't need to... You know, this is... These waves are caused by wind. And in the theory, in the awakening of faith, this wind is ignorance. But as I said in Genjo Koan, Rogen Zen said, this is the wind of Buddha nature.


And even though the surface of our mind is still moving like a wave, we are all also, you know, sitting on the bottom of the ocean. And there's no such movement in the bottom of the ocean. So, this is thinking, and this is not thinking. And all together, this is something... Things happening in this practice is beyond thinking. This is a universal movement of the network of interdependent origination. To me, this is Oshan Seru Samadhi or Kain Zanmai in Dogen Zen's teaching. So, the bottom of the ocean is not thinking? The bottom of the ocean is not unthinking?


Thinking is Seru. And when I said not thinking, that means for Seru. And I translated his theory as beyond thinking. Both Seru and him means not. In some translations, this is not and this is not. Or opposite. But that makes so much sense to me. Not thinking or non-thinking. To me, the same. So, I translate this as beyond thinking. Beyond thinking. Beyond thinking means it's not a matter of thinking or not thinking.


These two words, who and he, both show negation. But I think usually or often, this who negates the verb, the action. And he negates the noun. So this means, Fushiro means lack of action of thinking. So, thinking and not thinking are opposite to each other. But Fushiro means it's not a matter of thinking or not thinking. That is my understanding of Fushiro. So then, Fushiro on the surface of the ocean and the bottom of the ocean, where is Fushiro? Both? Yeah. Both Seru and Fushiro, thinking and not thinking, are the expression of beyond thinking.


Or both are happening as a movement of interconnectedness. It's not my thinking. And it's not my not thinking. This is happening. Or expression of larger life beyond my thinking or not thinking. I want to ask about their virtue of walking on the ocean goes to its bottom. So, to translate that into this, it would be saying, the truth of thinking is not thinking. The virtue of thinking is not thinking. The virtue of thinking is not thinking. I think that's it. I think that is correct.


Please. If we continue with this metaphor of the surface and the deep of the sea, we remember something which is this case. When you are in a boat and there is a storm. Pardon me? When you are in a boat, there is a storm. The waves go in one direction. There is a wind. The waves go in one direction. At the bottom of the sea, water moves in the other direction. So, this is what we call deep sea below the yacht. The deep sea means that the water moves in the other direction. It makes sense thinking not thinking because when the waves come because we have wind, and the wind has been many years, many months in the boat, we know that the wind goes in one direction. But what it is felt in the yacht, in the boat, is deep water.


Deep water means moving in the other direction. So, it means that in this case, positive and negative. Thinking not thinking goes because you may move in the ship. This is the counterbalance between the water that you see when you are in the surface and the water you feel in the boat when there has been a storm or extreme movement. So, this combines thinking and not thinking, the way this experience has been in the boats and the ships. Always important is deep sea. That's interesting. Anyway, so, in the case of Dogen Zenji's Ocean Seals Samadhi, the ocean is still moving. It's very dynamic. It's not a matter we have to stop the wind of ignorance and cease the movement of waves.


It's not, how can I say, motionless static condition of our mind. But within our Zazen, everything is still moving. Our stomach is digesting what we ate, and our heart is beating and sending all the blood to the entire body. And everything is working within this body. There is no, not possible, only our brain stops working. And the function of our brain is to produce thinking. Uchamaru said this is the secretion from our brain. So, brain keeps producing illusions or delusions or thinking. But Dogen Zenji's data discussing this writing is, when we really see the nature of those thinking coming and going, arising and perishing,


we don't need to grasp all that kind of thinking coming and going and take action. Actually, in our daily life we do. When we have some idea or thinking, I feel I have to do that. But in our Zazen, we make determination not to do anything based on the thinking coming and going. Then, that is what opening the hand of thought means. We don't grasp. So, thought is coming and going. That is to explain this strange idea. I use an example of driving a car. When we are sitting, our brain is still working. When we drive a car and put the gear into neutral, then the motor engine is still moving.


But because the gear is in neutral, the car doesn't move. That means we don't take any action, even though all different kinds of thought are coming and going. So, that means we don't create any karma based on those karmic consciousness. So, within our Zazen, we are really liberated from our karma. At least when we are sitting and letting go. But of course, when we stand up from Zazen and get out of Zendo, we have to think. And we have to put the gear into somewhere and walk and make decision. To do so, we need thinking. But even though the gear is in neutral, still the engine is moving. So, our brain is producing all different thoughts. But when we sit facing the wall, there is no object in front of us, only the wall.


And it means nothing. But as you know, when we sit facing the wall, still we have object. That is our thought. When we are sitting in this posture facing the wall, I think we can do three things. One is just sitting. The second is thinking. And the third is sleeping. But what about awareness? If I think of not thinking and I sit, then I have to be aware of my not thinking. So, there is awareness. My action would be being aware. It depends on the quality or nature of awareness. If we think aware of something as object, then there is a separation between the person sitting and the things happening that is even not thinking.


If there is some object within ourselves and we interact, there is a separation. Within our mind, subject, object. And sometimes we fight against the thought, I hate this thought or I love this thinking. Or now I see I don't think anything and I love this. If there is such separation between observer and things happening and being observed, if there is such separation within our mind, we stop and return to just sitting. That is our practice. So, in the awareness, if you are aware of not thinking, that is fine. Just aware, being aware, that's okay. But if you think, because now I don't have any thinking, therefore this is a good zazen. That is already thinking.


So, within our zazen, we really just sit. There is no observer, no judgment. That is the important point. In that practice, there is really no separation. So, this is really one piece. The person sitting and things happening become one piece. So, whenever we find we interact something happening in our mind, then we stop. But we cannot stop with our thinking. When I think I have to stop this, I'm still thinking. So, this posture and breath is really important. Deep, smooth breath is really important in this posture. Whenever we find we are doing something within our mind, we stop by returning to this posture or breathing.


We cannot stop thinking by thinking. Does it make sense? It reminds me of the story, the children's story in the Urages. Yes. So, that is our children's story, but it has a big meaning. Ah, here we are. And next sentence is, To seek to cause the currents of birth and death to return the source is not what I am thinking. This is kind of a strange sentence. But the first half is not so difficult. To seek to cause the current of birth and death to return the source.


This is, you know, current of birth and death means our thinking. Birth and death means samsara in this case. Because of our thinking, we transmigrate within samsara. So, we stop thinking and return to one mind or mind source. That is the practice in that theory I introduced. Is that a title? Should we return to the source? Return, maybe so. I just downloaded, so I don't know. Probably we need to return to the source. In the next, the last sentence of this paragraph, it says, returning to the source, so the same. So, this return to is the word or expression


the first one, the hōzō used. That is, again and again. Hōzō or Fatsan, the great master in Kegon or far-young school, explained Fatsan is kai in German. He named his contemplation or meditation practice as mōjin gengen, that is part of the writing, part of the title of his writing. mōjin gengen kan, kan is contemplation. This mō is illusion or delusion or illusory thinking.


And gen is exhausted and returning to the source. So this returning source means returning to the one mind. The very basic shingen, one source or origin or waterhead of the mind. Before all illusory thought arises. This is the common practice of kai in the mind. But here Dogen said, it is not what you are thinking. What you are thinking is a translation of the songo, shingyo, the juubo or somo, shin and gyō.


Gyō means activity. So activity of mind. And this somo is fat. So this is a question. Fat is this mind activity. What is this activity of mind? So, and Dogen said it is not this or this. So to return to this source is not this. And this is a kind of a difficult sentence to interpret. There are at least two opposite ways of interpreting this sentence. One is this returning the source is positive. And this is negative. That means the practice of returning source is something good thing.


And we should do it. But it should not be done as our mind activity. It should not be the activity of our mind. That is one possible interpretation. So returning the source should be very natural action without our intention of I need to return. That is one possible interpretation. And another is this is negative. Dogen said negate this. And this is positive thing. That means this somo can mean not negative. Somo is same as emo. That means such or thus. That means if we want to return to the source of mind,


then that is not the activity of mind based on or according to thusness. And I think this second interpretation, I think I agree with this second interpretation. Can you say that one more time? Would you just say that sentence about the second interpretation? This trying to return source is negative thing. So this sentence means this practice is not the activity of mind based on or according to thusness. I agree with this interpretation because Dogen Zenji never used this word again and again, returning to source in positive way.


He always didn't like this expression and this practice of returning to the source. I introduce one example. Let me finish this paragraph. It is in Zazen Shin. There is a shogogen for Zazen Shin. Shin means acupuncture needle. So Zazen Shin is acupuncture needle of Zazen. And he picked up a few acupuncture needle of Zazen. Zazen Shin can mean two things. One is Zazen is acupuncture needle that heals our sickness. But another meaning is there is some certain sickness caused by certain way of practice of Zazen.


And we have to heal it. And Dogen Zenji introduced Wanshi Shogaku's verse of Zazen Shin. And then he introduced from his point of view, mistaken way of Zazen. For example, in the very beginning of this chapter of Shogogen, Zazen Shin, he discussed this expression, think of not thinking. How do you think of not thinking beyond thinking? And after his discussion of this poem, he says, Nevertheless, these days, some careless stupid people say, practice Zazen and do not be concerned with anything else in your mind.


This is the tranquil state of enlightenment. This view is beneath even the views of Hinayana scholars. It is inferior to the teachings of human and heavenly beings. Those who hold this view cannot be called the students of the Buddha Dharma. So that means the meditation practice to eliminate our thinking. And later in the same chapter, he introduced Wanshi's Zazen Shin. He said as follows, He said, before Wanshi, there were several Chinese Zen masters who wrote about Zazen.


And Rokendo said, Let's see, maybe I should read from the beginning. Therefore, even since ancient times, few people know that Zazen is Zazen. So not many people. On the various mountains of Great Stone China today, even among the abode of prestigious monasteries, few understand Zazen and few study Zazen. Although there are some who do, they are few. At many temples, of course, the practice of Zazen is scheduled. Not only the abode, but also the monks consider Zazen their basic practice. When teachers encourage their students, they also urge them to practice Zazen.


Even so, only a few abodes know Zazen clearly. So he is critical against Chinese Zen masters when he visited China. For this reason, from ancient times to modern times, a few old masters have composed Zazen-mei, or maxim of Zazen. A few old masters have written Zazen-gi, or standards of Zazen. And a few old masters have written Zazen-shin, or acupuncture needle of Zazen. The Zazen-mei are all no good, and the Zazen-gi are not clear about actual practice. These were written by people who did not know Zazen clearly,


and who had not yet singularly transmitted Zazen. I refer to the Zazen-shin in Keitoku Dentoroku, or Record of Transmission of Dharmarama, the Zazen-mei in Kataizutoroku, the collection of Zen literatures. And he continues, It is pitiful that those people spent their whole lifetime visiting and practicing at the monasteries of the ten directions, and yet they did not make single-minded effort in even one sitting. Sitting was not their self. Their effort did not meet with their self at all. So that means they didn't really meet the true self.


This is not because Zazen rejects their body and mind, but because they did not aspire to the genuine effort of Zazen, and they are quickly intoxicated by delusion. Next, he says, Their writings, the reason why Dogen Zen said they didn't really understand, is Their writings seem only discuss going back to the source, or returning to the origin, and mainly endeavoring to stop thinking, and become absorbed in tranquility. So this is Dogen's opinion about returning source. Let me read this sentence again. Their writings seem only discuss going back to the source, that is, gengen.


Actually, the expression he used is gengen hen hon hon or hon hen also return or go back and hon is root, returning to the root. And gengen hen hon or hen hon gengen is a very popular expression in Chinese Buddhism. And Dogen Zenji criticized, at least didn't like this expression, or this kind of practice, returning to the source. That means eliminate all discriminating thinking. And, you know, just be quiet.


Eliminate thinking. And sometimes it is called enlightenment. So, their writings seem only discuss going back to the source, or returning to the origin, and mainly endeavoring to stop thinking, and become absorbed in tranquility. So this is his evaluation about this kind of practice, or this word gengen, returning to the source. So, not far I agree with the second interpretation of this sentence in Kai in Zanmai. To return to the source. That means to cause the current of birth and death to return to the source. While previous penetrating the barriers and breaking down the sections,


barriers and sections is like categories or concepts we caught up in our mind. And penetrating the barriers and breaking down sections means become free from that kind of categorization, cause made in our mind. That means letting go of thought. Letting go of our view. We are free from that kind of man-made barriers and sections. Maybe the faces of the Buddhas and ancestors, that is our practice, letting go in other sense. But this letting go is not eliminating the soul. Letting go and eliminating is really different. In order to let go, we need thought. If thought never occurs, it cannot let go.


So in order to let go, in order to be free from, we need thought. So, I don't like this translation of next part. They are rebirth, returning to the source. I think this translation completely destroys what Dogen is saying. The word Dogen uses is Chōsō. Chōsō is not a Buddhist word. This is a political word. That means, you know, the ministers and retainers of certain emperor needs to visit the emperor.


Not only the ministers and retainers are government officers, but when China was really strong like Tang dynasty China, the representative from Japan or Korea or Tibet or Mongolia visited Chinese emperor to show their friendship and have no negative feeling against China. Visiting the emperor is called Chōshū. So this is like all the rivers go towards the ocean. That means each and every practice we do in our zazen, we let go. And when we work in a kitchen, we let go of our ego self-centered things and try to contemplate,


focus on what we are doing, just cutting or washing dishes. Those are being free from these barriers or sections. But all those practices are flowing, I think, flowing or flowing to the ocean of this Kanyin Zambai. You know, for example, for Japanese people, Chinese emperor is not a source, but not the reason Japanese people visit Chinese emperor. So it's not returning. And for the waters in the various rivers, flowing into the ocean is not because ocean is a source. So I don't like this translation as returning to the source.


But all those practices we do in the zazen room or in the kitchen or anywhere else is flow into this ocean series of mind. I think that is the meaning of this sentence. Any questions? Comment? Thank you.