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Good afternoon. In this Genzo, we are going to study Shobo Genzo, Kaiin Zanmai, Oshan Seisamai, and if we have enough time, I'd like to study also Zanmai Ozanmai. I don't know how much Kaiin Zanmai takes, short, but very big. Anyway, Kaiinzanmai, or Ocean Sail Samadhi, is one of the names of samadhis Dogen-senji used in his teachings, or writings. Of course, as you know, I've been chanting bendo wa, or whole-hearted practical practice.

[01:05]

Togen Zenji called his zazen as Jijo-yo Zanmai. I think you are very familiar with this word. Jijo-yo Zanmai. And basically, what he's talking about in this Kaiin Zanmai rope in Jijutsu Samadhi. This is the first one. The second is Tai Inzan. He called this Ocean Sea Samadhi, our practice of Zen. And Bendowa was written in 1231. Bendowa was the second writing of Dogen.

[02:09]

Dogen Benji was still studying one year ago. And Kain Danmai, this writing, was written in 1242, so 12 years after Bendowa. writing he mentioned about Samadhi is in Japanese, Hosho. Hosho means dharma, nature. And he used the expression, dharma, nature, Samadhi. Hosho, Samadhi. I think Kaenzanmai and Hoshozanmai have a close connection. This was written in next year, 2043. I said these two are closely connected because both Kaenzanmai and Hoshozanmai Dogenzenji quote Masu's sayings from the same

[03:26]

dharma discourse of Mahārāja. So these two are closely connected. Fourth is dharmāyu or dharmāyi. O is king. So this means the samādhi, that is, king of samādhis. Zanmai-O-Zanmai originally appeared or used in Mahā-Prajñā-Tārāmitā-sūtra, not the Heart Sutra, but the larger Prajñā-Tārāmitā-sūtra, when he and Buddha expound the dharma of Prajñā. He was in Zanmai-O-Zanmai. If I have time to talk on Zangai Gozan, I'll talk about it.

[04:31]

And the fifth chapter of Shobo Genzo, he mentioned about samadhi, is Jisho Zangai. Ji is self. Same Ji as Ji in Jijū Samadhi. And Shō is verification. Shō in Shūshō Ichi-Nyō, practice and verification for enlightenment are one. That's this Shō. So, self-verification Samadhi. This is a little different. In this writing, he basically they criticized the Rinzai teacher named Dalai Hung.

[05:34]

So he didn't really talk about his samadhi, I mean his practice as samadhi. But those four, in those four chapters of Shogo Gendo, he discussed what is the nature So, Zanmai o Zanmai was written in 1244, and Jisho o Zanmai is the same year. And if you know, you are familiar with Togen Zenji's life, there's a kind of a transition, big change in the middle of 1243 until Seventh month of 1243, he and his son-in-law were in Kyoto at Koshoji.

[06:36]

And the rest of his life until 1253, he died. He and his son-in-law were at the age of Actually, in 1243 and 1244, they didn't have monasteries. So Dogenzenji and his sons lived in a very small, tiny, old temple named Kippoji, or Yoshimune-dera, or Yamashita. Here it was, or that was built. That was then. Dogenbenji wrote Hosho and Zanmai Ozanmai and Jisho Zanmai. Anyway, so now this time we study Kaiin Zanmai.

[07:40]

Kaiin Zanmai is a very, very basic Samadhi in Kegon. English translation for Kegon is Flower Ornament. This is the name of one of the important Mahayana sutras. And English translation of the title is Flower Ornament Scripture, or in Sanskrit, Patatantraka Sutra. Before I start to talk on Dogen Zenji's text, I'd like to talk about what is the kai in zanmai in kegon teaching. Because it is really important to study the very basic fundamental teaching of Chinese Buddhism as a whole, and also Chinese Zen.

[08:56]

And Dogen Zenji is a kind of very unique person, a unique Zen master. Almost he was challenging those fundamental teachings in Chinese Buddhism and Zen. So, unless we have a clear understanding of what kai in Zen means, in Kegon teaching and Zen teaching. We don't really understand what he is talking about. So, let me talk first about what is the understanding of Kai in Zanmai. In Chinese, Kegon, Hua Hua, Yang, I think you know, if you are familiar with the history of Chinese Buddhism, the most important master in Fajian or Kebon school is Hou Tou.

[10:23]

Hou Tou. I think Chinese pronunciation of his name is Fa Tsuang, T-S-A-N-G, Fa Tsuang. He lived 643 to 712. If you are familiar with the history of Chinese Zen, he is the contemporary with Huinan and Shinshu, you know, the famous story.

[11:28]

They are both disciples of the fifth ancestor of Zen. and they had a kind of competition. Anyway, I'll introduce that story later, I think. Actually, Shenshu, or Jinshu in Japanese, became the teacher of the emperor. Actually, emperor and empress. Empress Wu. And the same person also supported Fa Zhuang. So they are contemporary. Anyway, either meditation or contemplation practice in Kebun or Fayan school is named Kai In Zang Mai. He wrote one fathom, wrote one writing.

[12:40]

The name of the writing is very long. The name in Japanese is Shu Kei Gon Oshi Mo Jin Gen Gen Kan. And my last translation of this long name is a practice of contemplation of exhausting illusory thoughts and returning to the source. That is the innermost truth of pure Hua Yan or Ke Gon. An important point is Mo Jin. Gen Ren. Mo is illusory thought.

[13:54]

Abbreviation of illusory thought. And Jin is exhausted. One is free from illusory thoughts. And Gen is return. Next Gen is source or origin. So, exhausting the illusory thoughts and returning to the origin. That is an important part of this title. So, their practice is basically to eliminate our illusory thought, become free from thinking, and return to the original reality. That is the basic meaning of this topic, of this writing. And in his writing, he defined what is kainzanban in his teaching, in fayan or kegon teaching.

[15:03]

So, I'd like to introduce this. This is very rough translation, and I translated this yesterday. So, no American ability. So, I'm not sure this is correct. It's a good English. I'm sure this is not a good English. Anyway, part of this writing, Hozo said as follows about the kaiin zanma. He said, the ocean sea, kaiin, ocean sea, refers to the true tatata, true tatata, in the unseen realm, true reality. True reality and the original enlightenment. Original enlightenment is Hongaku.

[16:05]

I am going to talk about what is true reality and original enlightenment later. So, he said, kai-in is tata-ta, or suchness or suchness, and original enlightenment. That is what kai-in refers to. And that means according to him. When delusive or illusory thoughts are exhausted, the mind becomes clear. Then 10,000 forms appear equal to that mind.

[17:19]

10,000 means all. All things appear as they are, reflected as they are, without any distortion. Then our illusory or deluded thoughts are eliminated. We can see everything as they are. And this is like In the ocean, waves are caused. Waves on the ocean are caused by the wind. So if there's no wind, the surface of the ocean is really flat. But because of wind, When the wind stops, often this wind is ignorance.

[18:21]

The window of ignorance stops. If the wind stops, then the surface of the ocean becomes clear. Then everything, mountains and other things, can be reflected as they are on the surface of the ocean. So when the wind stops, the ocean water becomes clean and clear, and each and every form appears only. So this is an analogy, the ocean and wind and waves is an analogy of the condition of our mind. Our mind, as it is, is like an ocean, but because of the wind of ignorance, our mind is always moving, and sometimes it becomes like a tsunami.

[19:22]

Very powerful. We are almost killed. Anyway, when that wind of ignorance ceased, then everything became reflective as they are. This is what Kaiin Zanmai means. for Hōzō, and he continues. In the Awakening of Faith, Awakening of Faith is this text, and I asked her to make a photocopy. Do you have a copy of this? Actually, this is the original text. a person or cause of abuse when he discusses about this high example.

[20:24]

So he continues, in the awakening of faith, it is said, the treasury of immeasurable virtues, the treasury or storehouse of immeasurable virtues the ocean of suchness of dharma nature. So ocean of suchness of dharma nature. So this ocean of suchness came from this text. And he said, therefore, it is named ocean, sea, samadhi. So this is the meaning of ocean, sea, samadhi, or kai in Dhamma. our deluded mind stops producing illusory thoughts, then we can see things as they are. That is Kali-in-dharma.

[21:26]

And as Sutra says, all ten thousand things are reflected on the one dharma. So one means single dharma, not many dharmas that refer to this great ocean. And he said one dharma, and this one dharma referred to a so-called one mind. One mind. So the ocean is one dharma and one mind. But when the ocean is influenced by the wind of ignorance, it starts to wave. So samadhi is a condition of the wave cease.

[22:32]

When the wind ceases, the wave ceases, and this one dharma appears. The mind reveals. this mind, this one mind embraces all worldly worldly and beyond worldly dharmas worldly means samsara and beyond worldly means nirvana so samsara and nirvana are both included within this one dharma, one mind and this is the one the world of reality. The world of reality is a translation of Dharmadats, one Dharmadats. And the essence of all faces in their totality. That is what this one mind means, and this is what is written in this text.

[23:37]

And only because of the illusory thought, our deluded thinking, there is discrimination. So within one mind, or within the great ocean, there is no discrimination. But because of our delusory thinking, we make discrimination and make distinction. and we like a good and bad life. This life, meaningful, meaningless. And we want to get something we want, what we like, what we think valuable. And we start to escape from what we don't like, what we think valueless. And this running after something, or escaping from something, creates, makes our life sansara. We are always running. And sometimes we can be successful, but not too often.

[24:52]

And more often we are not successful. So our life becomes like a transmigration within six realms of samsara. Sometimes we feel like we are heavenly beings. or asuras, or fighting spirit. And the condition is always changing. So we cannot find a stable foundation of life. We are always running after something, or escaping from something. That is samsara, transmigration within samsara. But that samsara, chasing after something or escaping from something, was caused by our discrimination. And the discrimination is caused by the waves, illusory thought.

[25:57]

And the illusory thought was caused by this wind of ignorance. So once wind of ignorance is ceased, ignorance is a first cause in the 12 rings of causation. That is a cause of suffering. then nirvana appears. That's the very basic teaching of Buddhism. At least, Sakyamuni's. So, when we are apart from the illusory thought, there is only one single true suchness. There's no distinction, no discrimination. Only one mind, or one dharma. And for this reason, we call it Ocean-Sea Samadhi. So this is what Ocean-Sea Samadhi, or Kaiin-Zanmai, means, according to this great Fayan master.

[27:11]

And Fayan, Hozo, was also wrote the most important commentary on this text, the Awakening of Faith. So we, even today, we study Awakening of Faith by reading Fatsang or Horto's commentary. The name of his commentary is Daijoubu Shinron Gikki. And basic teaching, Zen came also from this idea. So, I'd like to introduce very roughly, briefly. Now, actually, now at Sanshinji in Wellington, we have been studying this text since last April.

[28:17]

On every Wednesday evening, At Sanshin-ji, we have a Dharma study group, all depend on me. So I have been re-studying the steps of awakening of the fish, and I have been studying the kind of life at the same time, for two different reasons. But I found these two are very closely related. If we don't understand the fact itself in this text, we don't understand the fact of any discussion. So that's why I asked her to make a photocopy of part of this text, and that part shows the very basic structure of the teaching in this text. teaching on Kaiin-zanma is clearly based on this text, as I introduce right now.

[29:30]

I think the handout starts page 32. I'd like to start a little earlier. In page 28, so it's not in the handout, I just introduce one sentence. The principle of this text I want to say is the mind of sentient beings. Mind of sentient beings. Sentient beings is translation of Shujo. Shin is mind, and Shujo is, I usually translate Shujo as living beings, not sentient beings.

[30:37]

So this text, what this text is discussing is our mind. mind of giving all living beings. This mind, this mind is sin. So this mind should be the capital A mind, not our psychological function. This mind includes in itself state of being of the phenomenal world and the transcendental world. This is exactly the same as the first one said in that text. This shujo-shin, the heart or mind of living beings, includes both worldly dharma and beyond-worldly dharma, sansara and nirvana. And this one, so this is one mind, this shin.

[31:40]

And this one mind has two aspects. This one mind has two aspects. The first one is the absolute aspect. In Chinese or Japanese, it's Shin. shōmetsu, mon. This shinyo is a true reality of what I'm used. And shōmetsu is arising and perishing. Mon means pain, but in this case, aspect. Aspect of mind. as Takadaha or true suchness.

[32:48]

And the aspect of mind that is arising and perishing, so it's moving like a wave, being arise and perish, coming and going. So this is samsara, this is worldly dharma. This is Nirvana. This is beyond worldly life. But this one mind, that is mind of living beings, includes both. Includes both, and this is not 50-50. But those are 100%. That is important. And this same one mind is also called So, shinsho is mind, nature.

[33:53]

Or shintai means mind essence or essence of mind. And another expression for the same mind. In shingen, gen means source. Source, origin, or waterhead, origin of the river. Those expressions appear in this text refer to the same one mind that is our mind. So this text is discussing about how this one mind functions as our life. And I go to page 32.

[34:59]

First, this text talks about this Shinshin no Momi, The mind as an aspect of the absolute. The mind in terms of the absolute is the translation of this text. And in this it says, the mind in terms of the absolute is the one world of reality, whatever that is. and the essence of all phases of existence in their totality. So, the way things are as they are, is without any discrimination, is the mind in terms of the absolute or Shin, Shin no mon. And it is said,

[36:04]

The bottom of page 32 says, that which is called the essential nature of the mind, shinsho, essential nature of the mind, is unborn and is impatient. Unborn and impatient means not arising, no arising and no patience. So, as a true tabaka, the mind doesn't arise and perish. But our thought is always arising and perishing. So these are the two different aspects of our mind. It is only through illusions. Illusions mean our thinking. Usually we don't think our thinking is illusion. There are particular kind of thinking that can be illusion. But I usually think My thinking is OK. Not illusion.

[37:09]

According to this text, all thought is illusion. That means not reality itself. It's a distorted copy of reality. So it is only through illusions that all things come to be differentiated. This is what Chamoros said, you know. the raw reality before being processed or cooked in our mind. The reality itself has no discrimination, no differentiation. If one is freed from illusion or illusory thought, thinking, then to him there will be no appearances, regarded as absolutely independent existence. So, I think this is a book, and this is a chalk, and this is a blackboard.

[38:14]

So, within my mind, these are different things. So, there is distinction and discrimination. One is important, another is important. But that is all caused by our illusions. There's no such value difference within the reality as it is. But we conceive it and make a concept and make a judgment and create a system of values. Then something becomes really important and something becomes less important. Something becomes harmful. to pay attention. In that kind of world, in which we are living, is a production of our mind, and that is illusion, according to Buddhist teaching.

[39:19]

Therefore, all things from the beginning transcend all forms of verbalization and description and conceptualization and are In the final analysis, I'm differentiating free from alteration and indestructive. That means, mind in terms of action doesn't change, does not arise, does not perish. It's always equal. And they are only of the one mind. Hence, the name suchness. And next, page 34 and 35, about this shinshin, mind as art, in terms of other things, this text has two more things.

[40:25]

One is this tatata, or suchness, mind as suchness, has two, again, two aspects. One is true empty, another is truly non-empty. Kind of interesting. And about the truly empty, he said, this mind as absolute is empty of both delusory arising and perishing thinking. That is what emptiness means. To me this is really interesting, because the meaning of emptiness is different from our usual understanding. Or, not usual, understanding, for example, in the Prajnaparamita Sutra, or the Heart Sutra. In the Heart Sutra it says, Avalokiteshvara sees only five skandhas, and he also sees all those five skandhas are emptiness.

[41:31]

So all those five skandhas are only things there, and those are empty. But mistakish emptiness means something different. Emptiness means lack of delusion. Lack of delusion. Lack of illusory thought is called emptiness. So this mind as absolute has no you are free from illusory thinking. That is what emptiness means. And some people don't like this understanding of emptiness. So this emptiness means like an empty glass. There is a glass, but the inside of the glass isn't. But it doesn't say the glass itself isn't. I think the common understanding of emptiness is that the glass itself is empty.

[42:36]

It's not a matter of whether there is something inside or not. And at the bottom of page 35 it says, truly non-empty. It means this mind in terms of absence has no delusory thinking arising in a patient. But this mind itself is not empty. It is there. That is another important point of this service, about what this one mind means. So it says, bottom of page 35, since it has been made clear that the essence of all things is empty, that is devoid of illusions. The true mind, the true mind is eternal.

[43:40]

The true mind is eternal, permanent, immutable, pure, and self-sufficient. This is very important point of this teaching, and possibly Dorenden didn't write this part. That is such a thing called the mind that is eternal, permanent, immutable, pure and sufficient. That is kind of a point of this teaching. Some scholars criticize this theory because they say there is some mind, true mind, that is eternal and permanent. And that is same with Buddha nature. And that is all this text says about the mind in terms of absolute. And from page 36, it is discussed about the mind in terms of phenomena.

[44:50]

In terms of phenomena, it is the translation of 心 shōnen, mind, which is appearing and And in this aspect, this mind is called storehouse consciousness. Storehouse consciousness is translation of alaya. Alaya consciousness. I'm sorry. Alaya consciousness. Alaya consciousness is a very basic term used in Yogacara teachings. And the theory of these steps is called Tathagatagarbha theory. Originally, Yogacara teaching and Tathagatagarbha teaching are two separate things, but somehow they combine these two.

[45:53]

I think the first sutra combining Yogacara and Tathagatagarbha is Lankavatara Sutra. In the Lankavatara, that is very important sutra in Zen tradition. Also, before Huinan, Zen was called Ryoga school or Lankavatara school based on Lankavatara Sutra. And some tradition for Bodhidharma transmitted Lankavatara This concept of araya consciousness and buddha nature, or the Tathagatagarbha, combined. And araya consciousness also has two aspects.

[46:55]

Everything has two aspects. Right after this section, the storehouse consciousness, the mind as phenomena or samsara is grounded on the Tathagata Garbha. Tathagata Garbha is an embryo or womb of Tathagata, the baby of Tathagata, same as Buddha nature. And this Tathagata Garbha or Buddha nature is called storehouse consciousness. What is called the storehouse consciousness is that in which neither birth nor death. Neither birth nor death is no arising nor perishing. That is Nirvana.

[47:57]

And arising and perishing, that is samsara. And arya consciousness includes both. Depending upon how arya consciousness works, our life becomes samsara one in one. Included both, and yet in which both are neither identical nor different. So it's kind of complicated. And this arya consciousness Enlightenment. Enlightenment is a translation of kaku. Kaku literally means awakening. It was an enlightenment. No enlightenment or no awakening.

[49:08]

Consciousness has two aspects. One is awakening, another is not awakening. That means even though we are almost completely deluded, the awakening or original enlightenment is still here as a Buddha nature or Tathagatagarbha within us. And this within us, this awakening, aspect of awakening is called Original. Original enlightenment. I don't like this word, enlightenment. The translator of this text uses the original word, hon. Hon is original. Kaku is enlightenment or awakening. So this means no matter how deluded we are, that means we are within samsara, still this original enlightenment is within us.

[50:26]

That is the important point of this theory of Tathagatagarbha. And another word of that original enlightenment is Buddha nature. We say, all of us have Buddha nature. That means we are using this field. And not only Honga, but there is another aspect within enlightenment. That is, in this translation, the process of actualization of enlightenment, of actualization of enlightenment. This is a long English expression. In Chinese, only two words. That is, shikaku. Shi is not in this text.

[51:38]

Shi is called inception. or beginning, beginning, or beginning enlightenment. And it translated as process of actualization of enlightenment. That means, basically, we are not katha, or true reality, just as it is, but because of the influence of our discriminating mind, Why? Illusion is thought. Our life becomes samsara. And yet, within samsara, our original enlightenment is there. And yet, as actuality, we are deluded. So, according to this theory, our practice is to find this, to discover this original enlightenment. or this open mind, or mind nature, or mind source.

[52:46]

We discover this mind nature or original enlightenment and return to that origin. That is our practice. That means we try to eliminate the illusory thought that is always arising and perishing. That is the process of the surface of ocean become more and more peaceful, less violent waves. And then Chikaku and Hon Chikaku completely return to Hongaku and become One. Then, this is called Kaiinzanka. When the waves are completely ceased, that is called the condition. It's called Ocean Sail Samadhi.

[53:49]

That is what Ocean Sail Samadhi really means in the theory of this text and also in the teaching of Yang. And another kind of important point to understand what Dōgen is discussing is the process of returning from non-enlightenment to enlightenment through the process of shikaku, or process of actualization of reality. That is what is said in page 38 and 39. According to this text, there are four stages. I'm talking only the structure, the basic structure of this teaching.

[54:54]

If we try to understand line by line the text, it will take forever. of teaching and the process of actualization of enlightenment on page 38. There are four stages. And these four stages are corresponding for our illusory thought, discriminated thinking, arising and perishing. In this teaching, within one channel, one very short period, shortest period of time, channel, it said in one second there are 75 channels.

[56:02]

In the tiniest, slightest period of time, there are four processes. Not only our thinking, but also everything. Those four stages are sho, ju, ni, me. Sho is being born or arising. And じゅう is rain. And い is change. And めつ is extinction or perishing. This one? This is めつ in Japanese. い じゅう しょう しょうじゅういめつ So think within one less than one second, one moment.

[57:12]

Thought arises, stays for a while, changes, and disappears in each moment, moment by moment. In the first stage, practitioners see the thought that has been perished, already gone, unseen, and think that thought is bad or good. So we evaluate and try to, try not to have, you know, wrong mistaken thought, and try to, you know, have a right thinking. That is how ordinary people do. So, people in the first stage only see the thought that has already grown, the patient.

[58:19]

And people in the second stage see the change of the thought within one moment. And people in this stage become free from bringing to the egocentric self. And in the third stage, people see the stage of dwelling of thought. And these people become free from the idea of each and every thing as a substance. Second and third is about the Atman within the self as our ego, and Atman within each dharma. It's said in the early Buddhism, Atman as a self is negated.

[59:23]

But in the Mahayana teaching of Prajnaparamita, not only the self, but also each and everything has no self. And in the final process, final stage, people could see the arising of the thought. First arising, first moment. Everything is in the moment. First point of illusory thought arises. Then we see that point. then we are free from all erudite or illusory thinking. And that is where all thinking mind, that is arising, dwelling, changing, and perishing, ceases.

[60:25]

And that is a condition of We need to understand what Kainzan-mai means in this sermon. Otherwise, we don't understand how powerful Dogen is talking about his own Kainzan-mai. So in this Kainzan-mai, all those thoughts coming and going are perished. The surface of the ocean becomes completely peaceful. and everything is reflected as all as they are. That is Kainzambai, and that is Buddha's Samadhi. And that analogy of ocean and wind and waves originated from this text.

[61:27]

It's not in the Haggadah, but in page 41 it is said, This is like the relationship that exists between the water of the ocean, that is enlightenment, and its waves or moors of mind spurred by the wind, that is ignorance. Water and wind are inseparable. Water and wind are inseparable. But water is not moving by nature. Water by nature doesn't move. And if the wind stops, the movement ceases.

[62:28]

But the wet nature remains undisturbed. So when the wind of ignorance ceases, the waves, the movement is ceased, but water never ceases. Likewise, man's mind, capital M-mind, as the third, man's mind, pure in its own nature, is stirred by the wind of ignorance. And both mind and ignorance have no particular forms of their own, and they are inseparable. Yet mind is not mobile by nature. Our true nature doesn't move, except the wind of ignorance.

[63:32]

And if ignorance ceases, then the continuity of deluded activities ceases. But the essential nature of wisdom, that is, the essence of mind, like the wet nature of the water, remains undestroyed. So this capital M mind, or one mind, or the mind of beings, as an absolute, our ignorance ceased, our delusive thought ceased, and our life became peaceful. That is what this Kailin Zamba means.

[64:33]

I had a question about when the awakening of faith was written in relationship to the Prajnaparamita literature, the timing of it, and also I wasn't clear what you meant about the difference in the understanding of emptiness in Awakening of Faith and the Understanding of Emptiness in Prajnaparamita. It says Awakening of Faith was attributed to Ashwagosha, an Indian past, but we don't know who Ashwagosha is.

[66:09]

There is a very famous poet named Ashwagosha, but it's much later. Not Ashwagosha, was not a Mahayana, past. So, the famous poet Ashwagosha wrote very famous poems, long poems on Buddha's enlightenment. But clearly, that Ashikaga Osho couldn't write this kind of book. So we don't know who wrote this. And some scholars have a question if this was really written in India and translated into Chinese. It is said this is translated by Shinkai, a very well-known His Indian name is Paramartha, I think.

[67:21]

Anyway, this person is about the contemporary of Bodhidharma. That means 6th century. That means there is a famous story about a meeting between Bodhidharma and Emperor Wu in Zen history. Probably not with a legend, made up story. Probably Pobrema never met with Emperor Wu. But this person, Shuntai, rarely met with Emperor Wu. And somehow, I mean, so Emperor Wu tried to support his translation work, but I think Emperor Wu died soon, so he lost the support. So he had to murder them. And his most important translation work was Shodai Joron. Shodai Joron is Sanskrit for Shodai Joron.

[68:23]

I forget. Anyway, that is a very important text of Yogacara, written by Asana, Vasubandhu's elder brother. Anyway, so traditionally it is said that this text, The Awakening of Faith, was written by Ashoka Gosha and translated by Paramahamsa Sita. But there is some question about this. So this is much later than the Platinum Paramita Sutras. And the difference between the understanding of emptiness, between the Platinum Paramita, and what this text said about two Tathagata, or two minds, is as said,

[69:34]

You know, it is like... So the mind is like a cup. And within this cup there is a periodic thinking. And yet this periodic thinking is always coming and going. And they are endless, themselves. But when this text says about the emptiness of this cup or true mind, This is empty of something, or lack of something, lack of relative thinking. That is the meaning of emptiness of this true mind. It's like an empty house, or empty glass, empty cup. That means a space without anything. But the original meaning of emptiness in Prajnaparamita is not like, you know, this house is empty.

[70:46]

That means there's nothing inside the house. But when the emptiness of the house is mentioned in Prajnaparamita Sutra, the house itself is empty. There's no such fixed Do you think that Paramartha knew about the Prajnaparamita Sutra? So he knew, so this was like, he was saying, that's wrong and this is the way it actually is. He was different with the Prajnaparamita. I think he actually had a clear understanding and he wanted to make it different. He wanted to say, true mind is not empty.

[71:49]

But illusory thought or production of illusory thinking is empty, very empty. It's very serious. But this mind is not empty. So the alaya consciousness from Yogacara, is that empty or not empty? Is that the container that is permanent? No. Yogacara, I mean, araya consciousness in Yogacara is not permanent. It is permanent. It is like a waterfall. It's always changing. And yet, so always new. There are some continuations, but it's not permanent. And in the case of Yogacara, ariya consciousness is source of delusion.

[72:52]

But in this text or in this third theory, ariya consciousness is a combination or mixture of delusion and enlightenment. That is the difference. In the Yogacara teaching, true tathata or true reality is beyond our consciousness. There's no way we can reach there as far as we are dealing based on the consciousness. That's the difference between Yogachara teaching and Tathagatagarbha teaching. Does it make sense? Please. So is the Yogachara practice trying to an extinguished thought, is that its direction? Meditation practice in Yogacara is called Yoishiki-kan.

[73:55]

Yoishiki means only consciousness. So we contemplate that everything we experience, everything we think, we create, is only consciousness. By seeing everything is only consciousness, we become free from our consciousness. Then we practiced in this way for a long time. Those eight layers of consciousness started to work with them. This transformation is enlightenment in Yogacara teachings. But in this Tathagatagarbha theory, to discover this one mind, the original mind, is, actually that is what is called Kensho, seeing the nature, discovering the nature.

[74:58]

In Rinzai tradition, enlightenment experience is called Kensho. And came to see, and show its nature. And this nature is an abbreviation of shinsho, mind's nature, that refers to this one mind, without the waves of delusory thought. So sensual experience means the experience, the conditioning, no thought coming and going. Then, according to the study, I have the experience to transcribe one Japanese Rinzai master's lecture. And he described his experience of Kensho.

[76:02]

He said, by practicing counting breath, in his case, counting breath, he practiced for many years, counting breath, and one time he experienced no thought arise. seeing the mind nature, the true nature, free from any illusory thinking. So that teaching and that practice is based on this theory. But somehow I think Dogenzen's teaching is different. program and that is why this might be so difficult.

[77:03]

He didn't really say he's against this theory, but he somehow said it's like a, what do you call, some hidden message. So it's, But the file is probably intentional. He wrote this in a very difficult way to understand. And it is, you know, at the end of this text, it is said this was written for Shoji. In many other chapters of Shobo Gendo, it said it was perfect to reassemble. But this kind of one was... doesn't say this was present to the assembly. It's all written. So probably he didn't explain what he meant to his assembly.

[78:12]

I don't know why. But it's kind of interesting. On page 36 of the Awakening of Faith, you were saying, neither birth nor death diffuses harmoniously with birth and death, and yet is neither identical nor different. So, diffuses harmoniously, what does that mean, diffuses harmoniously? In Zen, we'd say samsara and nirvana are one, one thing. So is this the same thing as that? I think so. That is another kind of important Zen teaching.

[79:26]

We are always together. Both two are always together and never meet each other. That is another important Zen teaching. So, that's the fact, you know, our values. Illusory thinking, discriminating thinking, never an original mind. never meet each other, because they are both 100%. So, so far, it's interesting. And from their point of view, this is a perfect, complete contradiction. And we can find the way, only with practice. Theoretically, there's no way to combine these two, integrate these two.

[80:30]

That is what Zen people want to say. Just don't think. As a theory, these two can never get along. I think on that point, not self, not thinking, this is self. But then people, we are going to talk about Masuo's teaching, about Karin Zanman, his teaching, and also Dorian's teaching, any kind of them teaching, stress, the emphasis on to practice, revamp, then within one action, within our practice, both are really there.

[81:31]

That is another important point of Zen teaching, in both Genzai and Soto, Watanabe Zen's teaching. So whatever Togen is writing, from his practice, not as a felt, become free from delusions and how we can get at the nirvana of our enlightenment. That is, all of these lightings is a kind of theory or a chart from a starting point to the goal. And in Mahayana it says there are 52 stages and it takes more than forever, to go to that, to reach the goal. But the Tathagatagarbha teaching could emphasize this.

[82:34]

Because we have Buddha nature, because we are a baby of Tathagata, if we continue to practice, we can reach the goal. Because we are Buddha's baby, If we mature, become mature, we can be like that. That is an important point of this talk. But what the teaching puts emphasis on is, at about right now, it's not a matter of 3,000 great collaborators, but at about right now,

[83:16]