2009.07.05-serial.00204

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Good morning. I start from the third of the ten major precepts. So, we have eight more precepts to talk this morning. So, I need to be in a hurry. The third precept is not indulging in sexual greed. Let me read first this precept from the Brahmanic Sutra. The third major precept on sexual misconduct. A disciple of the Buddha must not engage in licentious acts or encourage others to do so. As a monk, he should not have sexual relations with any female, be she a human, animal, deity, or spirit, nor create the cause, conditions, method, or karma of such misconduct.

[01:15]

Indeed, he must not engage in improper sexual conduct with anyone. A Buddha's disciple ought to have a mind of filial piety, rescuing all sentient beings and instructing them in the Dharma of purity and chastity. If, instead, he lacks compassion and encourages others to engage in sexual relations promiscuously, including with animals and even their mothers, daughters, sisters, or other close relatives, he commits a biological offense. This is the third precept from the Brahmanic Sutra, and Bodhidharma's comment on this precept is, and imperceptible.

[02:21]

Within the Dharma, that is free from attachment, not allowing a desire to attach oneself to anything, is called the precept of not having sexual greed." And Nogen Zenji's comment on this precept. Not indulging in sexual greed, When the three weaves, body, speech and thought, are pure, there is nothing to be desired. All Buddhas are walking in the same path. Those three are quite different. And the precept in the Brahman Sutra is the meaning of the precept. As ethics within the society, especially in this precept for the monks, any sexual conduct is prohibited.

[03:28]

And for the lay people, improper or sexual misconduct is prohibited. And because of the nature of this precept or the culture of the society this precept was made, that means 5th century in China. The morality or ethics of sexuality was based on the family system. So basically improper sexual relation, which is not proper, is relation outside marriage, you know, that relation, that kind of sexual relation destroyed the family value.

[04:30]

But, you know, the ethics of sexuality has been changed quite a lot. I mean, until, I think, until about 50 years ago in Japan, this kind of concept of morality was valid. you know, ethics or morality based on family system or value doesn't work anymore somehow. So probably we should reinterpret or rewrite, even rewrite, you know, this precept as a concrete, you know, ethics of sexuality that can be buried in this modern society. And I think one of the good examples is made by Thich Nhat Hanh in his book entitled Interbeing.

[05:41]

He made kind of his version of the precept. and about this precept of sexual misconduct. His precept is as follows. He said, do not mistreat your body. Learn to handle it with respect. Do not look on your body as only an instrument, instrument to you know, fulfill our desire. Preserve vital energies, sexual breath, spirit, for the realization of the way. So we should use the life energy for the realization of the way, not for fulfilling our desire.

[06:42]

For brothers and sisters who are not monks and nuns, that means lay people, sexual expression should not take place without love and long-term commitment. In sexual relationships, be aware of future suffering. So we should be aware of future suffering, which means our children and grandchildren. that may be caused. To preserve the happiness of others, respect the rights and commitments of others, be fully aware of the responsibility of bringing new lives into the world. Meditate on the world into which you are bringing new beings. This is Thich Nhat Hanh's version of this precept.

[07:55]

So we should respect our body and our life energy and also we should be responsible to within the cause and result. We are the result of, you know, our previous generations and we will is we are the cause of the next generation. So we are responsible for what we do to influence what the next generation needs to be. So, I think in other actual concrete ethical issues, we have to really think what is a valid conduct that can be wholesome.

[08:59]

Of course, I think sexual desire or sexual conduct itself is not bad. I don't think so. I mean, in the commentary on the Dogen's Kyoju Kaimon, someone said, if sexual desire itself is evil or bad, you know, and sexual conduct are all bad, then, you know, all Buddhas are also the result of bad things. So it should be considered in that way. And yet it is also true that careless, irresponsible sexual conduct or relations create a lot of pain and sufferings. So we need to be responsible to our actions. Bodhidharma's comment points out if we have any attachment that is against this precept.

[10:17]

He said, this dharma, this dharma of interconnected origination is free from attachment. Things are coming and stay for a while and going. It's happening without attachment. The time when, for example, flowers bloom, flowers just bloom. When time comes, the flowers just fall. And, you know, each year it comes and goes freely without attachment. So, within the Dharma, that is free from attachment. Not allowing a desire to attach oneself to anything is called the precept of not having sexual greed. So, not only sexual greed, but any kind of greed that allows us to attach ourselves to something, that is a violation of this precept.

[11:29]

And in Dogen Zenji's comments on this precept, his comment is almost the same with the second precept. He also talks about how subject and object meet. Three, he said, Then the three wheels, three wheels in this case means body, speech and thought. Those are wheels of our karma that carry and continue our life. Body, speech and thought. And those are called also three karmas, or three ways, or three parts or aspects we make karmas. and said, the three wheels are pure.

[12:33]

This pure is again the same word, jo, or purity. Or it's seijo or shojo. When body, speech and thought, our karma, are pure or clean, not defiled, There is nothing to be desired. So three wheels are subject to how we are. And when we encounter with some object, with our pure body, mind, and speech, that means without defilement. You know, as I often said, our talk on the teaching of Shakyamuni Buddha about the six links of causation.

[13:35]

Perception and object is nāma rūpa. When perception and nāma rūpa meet, then something happens. That is called contact. And contact causes feelings or sensations that can be present or un-present. And that causes clinging or desire. This is soku, juu, i.e. clinging and shu. I mean, desire and shu is clinging. These are the process, you know, our life becomes suffering.

[14:40]

I mean, the three worlds become a burning house. Our life becomes burning with three poisonous minds. But, if we are free from the defilement of the three poisonous minds, that means we are not free from this, you know, foot bandage between subject and object, or desire and the object of desire. But, the Buddha said, when, you know, there is a stage or state, nāma rūpa, cease to be. And that is a stage without no perception. Right? No. Without ordinary perception. Without disordered perception. Without no perception. And without any annihilation of perception.

[15:46]

When we are in that state, Namaropa ceases to be. Then contact ceases to be. And sensation ceases to be. And desire and clinging also ceases to be. And suffering ceases to be. So, that is what Buddha taught. And I think, or I believe, this state without without ordinary perception, without disordered perception, without no perception, without any annihilation of perception. It's what we do in our Zazen, by letting go. So, our Zazen is the posture or practice we are released from this bandage. So, in our zazen, we are released from this process of creating suffering.

[16:53]

That's why Dogen Zen said, our zazen is not the method to become enlightened. But this zazen is itself enlightenment and also itself nirvana. This is not where the... kind of a means to get something or to go somewhere. But this is where we need to be. That is nirvana. If we believe it or not. And then, practically, how do I do? Now, for example, if I have this very strong urge and any whatever it is, desire, or anger, or how do I relate to it in a natural way, which is practically how do I get back to my original life. That is what we do in practice.

[17:57]

Yeah, but if now I'm very angry with you, how do I... I don't want to go on and do nothing. Calm down. Count 1 to 10. OK. So, when we are released from this, you know, hooked bondage, then, As Dogen said in Bendowa, our Jijūzan, my friend, we sit showing the Buddha Mudra with our three wheels, body, speech, and thought. Then, he said, this entire universe becomes enlightenment and each and every being within this entire Dharma world

[18:59]

because it reveals its own enlightenment. That means, when we are released from this, you know, relation with desire and the object of desire, our perception and our nama-rupa, then this object reveals the reality as it is. This is not the object of my desire. to fulfill my thirst. These are just as they are, and we are just as we are. So Dogen Zenji, on the second and third precepts, he is talking about Zazen. and how we can live in our daily lives, how can I say, based on our Zazen practice, based on this release, this bondage between desire and object of desire.

[20:09]

That means how our Zazen can work in our daily lives. At least in our Zazen we cannot make you know, defiled karma with three body, speech and thought. But when we stand up, we can make any karma, whether it's healthy or unhealthy, or evil or good. How our zazen can work in our daily life, that is the point of this precept, practice of this precept in our tradition. So, then, are these precepts saying, obviously, we relate to people, right? It's not about withdrawing and not relating. Sure. When we relate with others, when we work with others, you know, that is the same as Dogen Zenji wrote in Tenzo Kyokun. Tenzo needs to work with other things and other people. So, it's not, you know,

[21:14]

we sit in the zendo, we are alone, we are just facing the wall, so there is no object. But in our daily lives, you know, there are things we need to work together, and they are objects, and if we are careless, they are objects of my desire to self, to satisfy my desire, and if those objects don't work for that sake, I become angry. That kind of clinging or bondage is the source of suffering within samsara, and we are transmigrate within that stage or continuous changes of the situation. So our zazen is to cut off that, you know, bandage and be ourselves and let all beings as they are.

[22:20]

That is done not by our effort but our As Dogen said, Zenji said, we become pure because of the power of dependence. And we become free because of the power of Zazen, not by our self-power effort. So we cannot say, I am an enlightened person. There is no way to say such a thing. We cannot do it by our willpower, because our willpower is a source of defilement. Well, so, this means all beings cease to be the object of our desires. Then, all Buddhas are walking in the same path.

[23:24]

So, not only this person, but all Buddhas walking together. as within this one network of interdependent origination. I think this is what Dogen meant in this comment. You know, his comment is very precise and he doesn't explain, he just expresses. So, it's really difficult to understand what he's really saying. And the next precept, to me, is the most difficult to understand. So, let's go to the next, the fourth precept. That is, not speaking falsehood. And the fifth is also very difficult. Fourth and fifth. The fourth precept

[24:28]

in the Brahmanic Sutra is as follows. Fourth major precept on relying on lying and false speech. A disciple of the Buddha must not himself use false words and speech or encourage others to lie or lie to lie or lie by expedient means, he should not involve himself in the causes, conditions, methods, or karma of lying, saying that he has seen what he has not seen, or vice versa, or lying implicitly through physical or mental means, As a Buddha's disciple, he ought to maintain right speech and right views always, and lead all others to maintain them as well.

[25:45]

If instead he causes wrong speech, wrong views, or evil karma in others, he commits a paralogical offense. So this is the precept of not telling a lie or a false speech. Bodhidharma's comment on this precept is, Self-nature is wondrous and imperceptible. Within the inexplicable dharma, not speaking a single word, is called the precept of not speaking falsehood. And Dogen Zenji's comment is, not speaking falsehood since the Dharma wheel has been turning from the very beginning.

[26:49]

There is neither too much nor too little. When a drop of sweet dew moistens all beings, reality and truth become revealed. For many years I don't understand what is the connection between this comment and the precept of not telling lies. Anyway, I will explain my current understanding of what Dogen meant. But first I want to say a little about Bodhidharma's comment on this precept. This is number four. Within the inexplicable Dharma, the Dharma, the reality itself, cannot be explained, cannot be fully expressed using words.

[27:58]

No words and concepts can be the reality itself. The words and concepts or our expression or explanation is, I think, is like a map or atlas of For example, the earth is like a ball. It has three dimensions. And a map has only two dimensions. So when we try to copy the earth on a flat sheet of paper, something is distorted. in whatever method the atlas or map is made. For example, in some atlas, Greenland is much larger than United States.

[29:00]

Greenland is a small island and yet it's much larger. Or something, the shape, or the size, or direction, something is distorted. around the center of the atlas or map relatively accurate, but especially the edge of the maps are completely distorted. And our view is the same. So there is no way to produce a perfect map on a flat sheet of paper. Something is distorted. And our way of thinking, using words and concepts, is the same. I think. Those are the copies of the reality. We don't see the reality itself.

[30:02]

We only see the nāma rūpa. So our view is distorted. So whatever word we use is not reality itself. There is some distortion. So therefore, in Buddhism, you know, we use the word which has no meaning, like tata or tatata. Tatata means thusness or suchness, which has no meaning, no definition. But these words, tatata or suchness or thusness, like a X, Y, Z. It has no meaning, but that is, just point out this reality before being processed within our mind.

[31:05]

But as, you know, it is said in the instruction, of the koan, Kando-san had a question and answer at the shuso ceremony. He said, even when we dust, it's already distorted. Even when we use this word which has no concept, still already it is distorted. So, what Bodhidharma's comment means is, to see, to see and to show this reality itself, we have to shut our mouth and just see. But, whenever or whatever we say, even one word, like a thusness or suchness or as it is, it's already distorted. That is what Bodhidharma is saying.

[32:08]

So, say nothing. Keep silent. Whatever you say, that is a lie. So, whatever word we use is against this precept. So, it's almost impossible to keep this precept as far as we have, you know, mouth and thought. Yesterday you said all thoughts are delusive. And that is what Bodhidharma meant. But we have to use delusive words as a tool to see, to understand the reality. That is our problem. That is our karma. Otherwise there is no way to live as a human being. We have to live with the tools that create delusions.

[33:10]

And if we think this is wrong, so we have to take this out, then we can't live. That is not really a healthy way of life. So fat is a very basic core for human beings. How can we live without being blinded and without a distorted view with this brain which is always creating distortion? How can we do that? That is a point of our practice and a point of our Yeah, without painted rice cake, we have nothing to eat. That is the problem. So, to live with, you know, delusive concept,

[34:17]

or idea and thinking is our life. So how can we live with those things, those delusive things, without being deceived by those delusions? That is the point of our practice, I think. Not only Buddhist practice or Zen Buddhist practice, but all human practice, I think. Here is Dogen. And in Dogenzen's comment, he says almost opposite from Bodhidharma. So, this is really kind of interesting, kind of a trip to go, you know, this precept of not lying as a concrete social ethics and absolute reality or anything is false.

[35:34]

So what? So we have to, you know, stop talking. And then Dogen says, since the Dharma wheel has been turning from the very beginning, that from the very beginning means turning the Dharma wheel means Buddha started to teach. And after, you know, Shakyamuni attained awakening, he walked to the beer park and started to teach those five monks. And that was called the first turning of the Dharma Wheel. But from the very beginning, it means even Shakyamuni started to teach those five monks, the Dharma wheel had been, you know, already turning, being turned. That means that reality itself is not, how can I say, fabricated by Shakyamuni Buddha when he awakened.

[36:45]

But he awakened to the way that things are. So that reality or the Capital D Dharma was there even before Buddha awakened to it. And even though we are deluded, we are living within that reality. So, Dharma is always turning. The problem is if we, as Buddha awakened to, if we can awaken to it or not. So, Dharma is always turning. Dharma never disappeared. Dharma is always working. But somehow we cannot see it. We cannot live based on the true reality, but we live based on man-made reality. Man-made concept of reality or story. We create the story.

[37:47]

And always the hero or heroine of the story is me. That is the way, you know, our view becomes distorted. And yet, even though we live in that way and we make our life suffering or samsara, still Dharma is turning. Dharma never stops turning. So, within this turning of Dharma, reality is going on within, you know, within the network of interdependent origination throughout space and time. Dharma never stops turning. It's always being turned. And, he said, there is neither too much nor too little. Means,

[38:50]

You know, the Dharma is just Dharma. There is no interpretation. No, how can I say, overestimate. No, how can I say, too little estimate. Because there is no separation between truth or reality and observer. There is no observer. Everything is included in this dharma. So there is no observer or seer. And the reality which is seen. This is simply one reality. Pardon? Yeah, this is Jijū-dharma itself. And in our Zazen practice we participate in this Jijū-dharma. We become part of this That is neither too much nor too little.

[39:56]

There is no way to evaluate, to make judgment, whether this is right or wrong. But when we see things from inside about the things happening, there is something we want. There is something we don't want. There is something healthy or unhealthy. So there is discrimination. And beyond discrimination means this reality itself, including all separation, as really one seamless reality. So, when a drop of sweet dew moistened all beings, all beings within this network, reality and truth become revealed. That means each and everything happening within this network is reality itself.

[41:02]

That means there is no way to tell a lie. Everything is truth. Everything is reality. Even when we are telling a lie intentionally, this, you know, what I'm saying is a lie, but this, the fact that I'm telling a lie because I want to deceive that person and get something from that person, this action itself reveals the reality of this person. There's no way to deceive that reality. So everything is really as it is. Reveals the reality or truth. So, we need to see this reality. There is no lying. I mean, what I'm saying is, there is no way to tell a lie. No way I can hide myself.

[42:08]

from this reality, or we cannot deceive Buddha. We cannot deceive this Dharma. We can deceive ourselves, and we can deceive other people. But the fact that we are deceiving ourselves, or others, or each other, is the true reality that is happening. And so we are deluded. So, in that sense, there's no false speech. Even the false speech revealing this reality, the reason why these strange living beings called human beings can tell a lie. I heard, you know, computer cannot tell a lie. Or computer cannot judge one statement is false or true. I must show it to you or not.

[43:17]

Some computer person said, you know, computer, what do you call? How can I say? Even human beings. young child can tell whether it's a lie, truth or lie, or that person, someone, can tell a lie. But I think the computer cannot judge if the person is intentionally telling a lie or not. It's just a one or a zero, period. And if it's something that would result in a state in between, it just gets stuck. Anyway, I'm sorry. I started to talk about this kind of thing. Please. What does, then, maybe, I'm sure you already described it, but what does a drop of sweet dew refer to? Sweet dew refers to Dharma.

[44:20]

Sweet dew is a translation of Kanno. and what is Kanro in English, sometimes it's called Sweet Dew or Ambrosia. That is a symbol of Buddha's teaching, Dharma. So, when all beings are moistened by the Dharma, means that all things are just Dharma, not be, not object of our view. Everything is revealing the truth or reality itself. So nothing is false, including the false speech. If we see this reality, we understand it doesn't work to tell a lie and deceive others. I think that is what Dogen meant in this comment.

[45:23]

Does it make sense? That means when we see that nothing can be hidden, then it's useless to try to tell a lie and hide something. Because it's already revealed by doing such a thing. The condition of our life is revealed as a deluded person. Okay, the next one is that problem. The fifth precept is not selling intoxicating liquor. in the Bonmo-kyo Fifth Major Precept on Selling Alcoholic Beverages, a disciple of the Buddha must not trade in alcoholic beverages or encourage others to do so.

[46:46]

he should not create the causes, conditions, method, or karma of selling any intoxicant whatsoever. For intoxicants are the causes and conditions of all kinds of offenses. As a Buddha's disciple, he ought to help all sentient beings achieve clear wisdom. If Instead, he causes them to have upside-down, topsy-turvy thinking. He commits a paralogical offense. So, this precept is about sealing intoxicating liquor, or in Chinese, Japanese, Fukoshukai. fū, kō, shū.

[47:54]

fū is not, kō is selling, and shū is sake. In Japanese, sake or alcohol beverages. So, this is not a precept of not drinking alcoholic beverages, but not selling. Not drink is one of the 48 minor precepts in Bonmokyo. But this is not drinking, but it's about selling. And traditionally this, at least in, I'm not sure, in China, but at least in Japanese Sotozen tradition, We interpret this fukoshu or this shu or intoxicating liquor as not simply an alcohol beverage made of grains like rice or other materials.

[49:03]

But this intoxicating liquor is ignorance. one of the three poisonous minds. And we may sell ignorance or abuse or teaching based on ignorance. That is the point of this precept. Why is it so, when I read it and I hear it, it seems so directed to lay people? And the other are more general, like perhaps first to the monastic order and then to the people as well. So I just feel this must be very poetical. I mean, in the Chinese version, is there some kind of unclearness how to translate all the characters, or based on historical or poetic Do you know how to translate the characters so it today translates like this?

[50:13]

How come it feels so directed to like people? I mean there are no monastics training in alcoholic beverages. Hopefully. I'm not sure in Catholic monastery. Now I don't have time to discuss about the historical background of this precept. Maybe we can talk maybe after you leave on Wednesday study group. Now we are studying Brahman and Sutra. So, I'm sorry but I cannot talk on that thing. Bodhidharma's comment on this Precept is, self-nature is wondrous and imperceptible. Within the intrinsically pure dharma, not being blinded by ignorance, is called the precept of not drinking intoxicating liquor.

[51:29]

Here in Bodhidharma's comments. So, in this comment, this drinking or selling liquor means selling ignorance. That is a cause of delusions. So, even if we don't sell the liquor, if we are not free from ignorance, we are against breaking this precept. So we need to be free from ignorance. And Dogen Zenji's comment. This is a problem. His comment on the fifth precept is, Do not bring intoxicants in. Do not let them come in.

[52:32]

This is truly the great brightness of wisdom. Great brightness of wisdom. So, it is clear that Phat Dogen's saying is about the second half of this precept in Bonmo Kyo. That is, we ought to help all sentient beings achieve clear wisdom. This clear wisdom is myo-e. Myo can be clear or bright. And e is wisdom. So, the word Dogen Zenji used in the Bonmo-kyo is the same. word, myo-e, clear or bright wisdom.

[53:37]

That means seeing all things clearly as they are. That is the practice of bodhisattvas. But if we offer something against this wisdom, based on delusions or ignorance, we are selling the intoxicant. So, in this handout there are two translations. Right? There is another one in the parenthesis. Is there? Good. The first one is a kind of a common interpretation. of this precept. The first part of his comment has only six Chinese characters.

[54:56]

That is, Mi, Sho, Rai, Maku, Kyo, Shin. And next one is, this is truly the great brightness of wisdom. This part has no problem. So this is about not-selling. MI SHO RAI MAKU KYO SHIN MI can be not, yet, or never.

[55:59]

And SHO is hold. RA is come. So hold and come means bring in, take in. And MAK is not. KYO means let or make something to do something. And SHIN is like invade or trespass. This is another coming. That's all Dogen says. So, he doesn't say who and he doesn't say what. There's no subject and no object in this sentence. So, we have to interpret what he's talking about. And, so, translation, possible translation is Never bring in.

[57:05]

Never let them come in. Let something come in. Never something bring in. But we don't know what this is. So, possible or common interpretation is this intoxicant or ignorance. So, never bring this intoxicant liquor and never let that intoxicant come in. That is a common way of reading this sentence. And that is what the first sentence means. But there is another possible way of reading this. That means, In the case of the first way of reading, this is cut into two parts. So these are two sentences.

[58:08]

Never bring in and don't let something come in. Two sentences. But there is another way of reading that is reading this as one single sentence. In this case, this mi-shō-rai is something which we should not let come in. That means we read, not let mi-shō-rai come in. In Japanese, we read, in that way, we read mi-shō-rai-mo to read one sentence, to read as one sentence. And for many years, I don't really understand what this means.

[59:12]

But this way of reading appeared in Kishida Iyan, Roshi's commentary on Kyoji Kaimon. And He introduced one koan story about this expression, shōrai. And this is interesting. And when I carefully read that koan, I started to understand what this can mean. This, you know, don't let me shōrai come in. This story is about Tozan or Dongshan. We don't have much time. He is talking to his assembly about, I think you know, the competition of Dharma.

[60:25]

between Jinshu and Eno, or Huinan, under the fifth ancestor of Zen. To select a Dharma successor, a fifth ancestor requested his disciples to write a verse, one verse, which expressed their understanding. And Jinshu, was a head monk, and he was respected by all other monks. And so, Jinshu made a verse, and his verse is like, the body, this body, is the Bodhi tree. Bodhi means body tree, tree of awakening. The body is the body tree.

[61:26]

The mind, our mind, is like a bright mirror stand. Bright mirror stand has something to do with this bright, clear wisdom. At all times, we should polish it and must not let the dust collect. So, our body is a tree of awakening. And our mind is like a mirror of wisdom, clear wisdom. And yet, if we are careless, you know, the dust comes and stays on the bright mirror. So we have to always keep polish and keep the mirror clear. That was Joshu's poem. And another person, Eno or Huinan, who became the sixth ancestor, at that time he was not a monk yet.

[62:29]

He was a lay worker at the monastery. But when he heard this Joshu's poem, he said, enough to express the Dharma. So, even though he didn't or he couldn't read or write, but he could make poems. So, he asked someone to write a poem next to Jinshu's poem. And Huinan or Eno's poem is, Body or awakening originally has no tree. Awakening has no tree. The bright mirror has not a stand neither. From the beginning there is no one single thing. Where is the room for dust? This is Huinan's poem. And Fifth Ancestor, Judge, you know, Huinan had much

[63:36]

deeper understanding of Dharma. And within this Shuinan's poem, there is no one single thing. In order to understand this koan story, we need to understand these two poems. because Tozan talks about these two poems. He said, even, this is Tozan or Dongshan, the founder of Chinese Soto school, said, even if you straightforwardly say that Originally, there is no one single thing. That means, no one single thing. Still, you will not be able to get the fifth ancestor's Bag of the Begging Bowl.

[64:46]

That means, Eno's poem is not yet enough. Bag of the Begging Bowl, it means Oryoki, is a symbol of Dharma transmission. So, what Tozan is saying is, you know, what Huinan said is not enough. Then, a monk asked Jinshu, the first person, said that we should diligently practice and polish the bright mirror to prevent the dust from collecting on it. So, this is Jinshu's poem. Why did not he receive the robe and the bowl? Why did Jinshu not receive the transmission from the fifth ancestor? I wonder who can get them. That means, Tozan said, Hunan's poem is not enough.

[65:48]

And Mang said, Jinshu wrote such a poem. So both of them are not good enough. Then who could receive the transmission from the Fifth Ancestor. Then Tozan said, The one who does not enter through the gate. This is the most important saying in the Koan story. The one who does not enter through the gate. That means, you know, gate is between subject and object. and usually something comes in and something happens in our mind. So, this is a gate. So, the one who does not enter through the gate means there is no such separation between subject and object.

[66:51]

If the person lives in such a way, that person can receive the transmission. That is fact. Tozan said. Then, the monk asked, does such a person who does not enter through the gate get it or not? That means, if the person has no such separation between subject and object, That means, actually, one with all beings. Does such a person need to receive the transmission? Transmission, you know, what... receive, you know, the Oryōkibō or robe. There is already separation. Is there such a thing, you know, that person without gate can receive?

[67:54]

Or is it... necessary for such a person to receive such a thing, because he is already one with everything. Then, Tozan said, even though it is thus, that means he accepts this monk's statement, you know, such a person doesn't need to receive anything, any kind of recognition or approval, Even though it is thus, the fifth ancestor could not avoid giving it to such a person. So, somehow, the fifth ancestor had to, you know, give a transmission and offer the oryoki ball or robe as a symbol of this Dharma transmission. You know, to continue this tradition.

[68:56]

So the Dharma itself cannot be transmitted. There's no such things to be, to give or to be given. Because Dharma is this totality of interdependent origination and we are living, born, living and dying within that Dharma. There's no way, you know, we can trace the Dharma. So nothing can be given, nothing can be received. Okay, then the master, Tozan, gave another instruction. Even if you straightforwardly say that from the beginning there is no one single thing, again he started to talk about Huinan's expression, Still, you will not be able to receive the robe and begging bowl from the fifth ancestor.

[70:04]

Here, you should give one pivotal phrase. Tell me what you have to say." So, again, he said, you know, Huinan's saying, from the beginning, there is no one single thing. It's not enough. Muichimotsu is not enough. You have to say something. you know, better. That was, you know, the request from the teacher or other to his monks. And there was one monk who tried to give this, you know, pivotal phrase. But he tried again and again, but Tozan said no for 96 times. The monk said, you know, tried to say, you know, different things for 96 times, and each time Tozan said no.

[71:13]

That's not enough. The last time, so 97th time, the last time finally he said something satisfied the Master. And Tozan said, why didn't you say so sooner? So after 96th time of no, Finally he said, right, that is okay, that is fine. That's interesting. But there is another interesting thing here in this story. When the monk was trying to, you know, give his expression for 96 or 97 times, there was another monk who listened to the monk trying to give Tozan his expression.

[72:26]

So someone else was hearing, trying to listen to what the monk was saying. But he, the person, could hear the first 96 sayings, but he couldn't hear the final word this successful monk said. So, this monk asked, this successful monk, What he said finally, but the monk would not tell him. So, the successful monk wanted to keep it secret. Then, the monk kept asking for three years. Three years, keep asking, tell me what you said finally.

[73:28]

Still, the other monk did not tell him, so he wanted to keep it his own possession, secret possession. Then, finally, the monk who was keep asking became very sick, and he was dying after three years. Then this sick monk asked to that successful monk, I have been asking you to tell me what you said for three years, but you have been rejecting my request. He said, if courteous administration cannot convince you to tell me, What I want to hear, I will convince you in a violent way." Then he picked up a sword and said, if you don't tell me, I'll kill you.

[74:39]

So he was very serious. I think this is a made-up story, and yet very interesting. All those monks are very serious. Then the monk was frightened and said, wait, I'll tell you. So finally he shared what he said to the master. And what he said was, Even if it is taken in, I don't have a room to place it. Even if it is taken in, I don't have a room to place it. Even if it is taken in, this taken in is shorai.

[75:44]

bring in. I don't have space to place it. That means I don't need it. I don't need such a thing. Such a thing means the Oryokubo or the robe given from the fifth ancestor as a symbol of Dharma transmission. That means I don't need it. Because I don't have place to put it, to store it. That means, we are already in it. This is the source of this word, shōrai, Dōgen used in this comment. So, in this story, you know, Tōzan negates the finance expression Mu ichi motsu, no one single thing. There is no one single thing from the beginning.

[76:52]

And, Tozan negates, it means to say, to say no one single thing, or mu ichi motsu, is already extra. If it's really mu ichi motsu, we don't need to say there is no one single thing. That is why Tozan said Huinan, or Eno, wrote in the poem is not enough. To say one single, no, one single thing is already extra. Then Tōzan asked his disciples to say something beyond what Huinan said. And whatever the monk said, Tōzan said no for 96 times. This saying no for 96 times is important. It's total negation.

[77:55]

Whatever the monk said, no. And finally, the monk said, even when such a thing comes in, I don't have a place to throw it. And Tozan said, Tozan accepts that saying. So, in this case, this monk negated the Huinan's know one single thing. I have no place to such a thing called no one single thing. Does this make sense? Please. I just got inspired. Good. It just feels like that one interpretation of this precept then is to watch one's intention. Let's say, in this case, drinking.

[78:57]

It's not the substance in itself. It's the motivation. Yeah, that is one, I think, one of the meanings. Well, now I return to Dogen's comments. Dogen said, mii shorai. So, Dogen negates the monks, Todan's monks, interpretation, and he said, no, no mi shorai, never mi shorai, never shorai. He put another no. So this is 97th no. And what Dogen said is even this, you know, 97th no should not I forget how you say in English. We should not let even this Mishorai come in.

[79:59]

That means, even if they come in, there is no place to put it. And so we have to negate this shorai also. But even this negation should not be brought in. Does it make sense? That means stop saying anything. Whatever we say, that is wrong. Excuse me, Koji. Please. Even though we're talking on the fifth precept, doesn't this relate to what Dogen said in the fourth, from the very beginning, there is neither too much nor too little? Yes. So, being free from ignorance means just letting go of thought. And this is what we do in our Zen. Whatever thought comes in, just let go. This case about this dharma is one seamless dharma.

[81:00]

And we try to understand, try to see it, and try to understand it, and try to express it. Like this monk, Todan's monk said, you know, 97 times. And that is what we do. And each time something comes up, Todan says, no. And finally, you know, he said something right or correct, but Dogen said, this should, even this should, how can I say, not come in. That means keep letting go. This keep letting go is Not, you know, selling the ricard, not selling the ignorance. So, my understanding is, our zazen of letting go.

[82:03]

Whatever thought comes up, or perception comes up, just let go. It is the way we are released, or free from ignorance, the intoxicating trigger of ignorance. And keep practicing in this way. is the way we observe this precept. So, to keep this precept, we keep sitting and letting go and see the reality beyond or before being cooked within our mind. That is Uchiyama Roshi's expression. You know, we are drunk with our thought. whether it's a really deluded thought or, how can I say, thought based on our good will. Whatever thought is delusion, that is what Bodhidharma said.

[83:08]

So keep letting go is the way we are free from ignorance or intoxication. So Jinshu is right. Yes, in this case, so this, you know, this process of saying no is a process of polishing the mirror. So it's returned to Jinshu. And when we say Jinshu is right, then Shinran appears and that is not right. Then Tozan said that is not enough. And, you know, this is simply an endless process of saying no, then say something, then again say no, and say something. That is a process of our practice. So is it okay to love it? I love it. I love this kind of, you know,

[84:13]

stories and sharing with people. It's fun. Five more precepts. And time is over. Six precepts. The next five are not so complicated, I think. Let me just read and make a short comment, like Dogen. The sixth precept is not talking of the fault of others. This precept in the Brahmanic Sutra is Six major precepts.

[85:15]

On broadcasting the fold of the assembly. I like this broadcasting. Than talking. A disciple of the Buddha must not himself broadcast the misdeeds or infractions of bodhisattva clerics or bodhisattva laypersons or of ordinary monks and nuns, nor encourage others to do so. he must not create the cause, condition, method, or karma of discussing the offenses of the assembly. As a Buddha's disciple, whenever he hears evil persons, externalists or followers of the two vehicles, speak of practices contrary to the Dharma or contrary to the precepts,

[86:18]

within the Buddhist community, he should instruct them with a compassionate mind and lead them to develop wholesome faith in the Mahayana. If, instead, he discusses the faults and misdeeds that occur within the assembly, he commits a paralogical offense. So this is the precept. So, according to this translation, this means to speak, talk about the fault of people inside the Sangha, you know, to outside of the Buddhist Sangha, say, you know, people in the Buddhist Sangha doing such and such terrible mistakes. So, I don't think this is... precept prohibit, you know, talking or discussing when there's some problems caused by some member of the Sangha.

[87:24]

Those, you know, mistakes and causes difficulty or pain within Sangha need to be, you know, clearly pointed and discussed what is the cause and conditions and result and how we can avoid the same problems in the future. So, I think this precept doesn't encourage us to hide the problems. Anyway, Bodhidharma's comment is, Self-nature is wondrous and imperceptible within the flawless Dharma. Not speaking of others' fault is called the precept of not speaking of the fault of the four kinds of members of a Sangha.

[88:26]

And Dogen Zenji's comments. Not talking of the fault of others, within the Buddha Dharma, we all approach the same way. study, learn or study, I don't know which is better, the same Dharma, realize the same verification, and carry out the same practice. Do not discuss about fault of others. Do not cause disorder in the way. So, within the Sangha, we all walk in the same path, same way, and we study the same Dharma, and we share the verification it shows. This word is used as a pair of shoes.

[89:40]

And Dogen Zen Jiu says Shu and Sho are one. But Sho means, how can I say, you know, this Shu, as I often say, this Shu and Sho is an abbreviation of a longer expression, that is Mon, Shi, Shu, Sho. Mo is to hear, and shi is to think, and shu is to practice, and sho is verification, to verify. That means we hear some teaching, in our case Buddha's teaching or Dogen's teaching, and we think. about the teaching, try to understand intellectually before practice, and when we think the teaching sounds right, or it seems to work with me, then we put that teaching into practice.

[90:59]

And through practice we see the teaching was really true. That is what this verification means. Through our practice, that means through our experience, we see the teaching we studied is really true or really works. This shows verification or evidence. Evidence. And so this show is usually used as a result of practice. As a result of practice, we see that teaching is really true. That is what show means. So this show is often interpreted as satori. We realize that teaching is true. And Fat Dogen said, when he said, Shu and Sho are one, that means Sho, or evidence, is not after practice, but practice is itself Sho.

[92:15]

We don't need to wait until we finish practicing, or until we practice for a certain period to see the validity of the teaching. The practice itself is evidence of the truth of the teaching. So shu and sho are one. Anyway, what Dogen meant is within sangha we are practicing, studying the same dharma and practicing the same practice and realize the very same verification we do together and carry out the same practice. So do not discuss about I think this means to blame others and accuse others they are not good.

[93:20]

Of course there are some faults or mistakes we need to discuss, actually point out and discuss, and as our problem, not his or that person's problem, and to push this person out. But we need to discuss as our problem. is the cause of this problem. How can we avoid the same problem? I think that is what this precept means. So we need compassion for each other and embracing each other. And seventh is not praising oneself nor slandering others. in Bonmo-kyo or Brahma-netsu-sutra, it says, Seventh major precept, on praising oneself and disparaging others.

[94:23]

A disciple of the Buddha shall not praise himself and speak ill of others. or encourage others to do so, he must not create the cause-conditioned method or karma of praising himself and disparaging others. As a disciple of the Buddha, he should be willing to stand in for all sentient beings and endure humiliation and slander, accepting blame, and letting sentient beings have all the glory. If instead he displays his own virtues and conceals the good points of others, thus causing them to suffer slander, he commits a biological offense. So, this is the precept.

[95:27]

of the Seventh Precept in Bonmo Kyo and Bodhidharma's comments. Self-nature is wondrous and imperceptible within the non-discriminating Dharma. So, within Dharma there is no discrimination between self and others. Not distinguishing oneself from others is called the Precept. of not praising oneself nor surrendering others. So even when we make distinction or separation between self and others, that is a violation of this precept, according to this Bodhidharma's comment. You know, as it is often said, Sangha is like an ocean. It means, you know, water from all different rivers comes into the ocean.

[96:33]

And once all the water from different rivers get into the ocean, the ocean becomes really simply one ocean. There is no separation within the ocean. But, you know, of course, in our common way of thinking, even Buddhist Sangha is a collection of individual people who have like and dislike, who have a karmic way of doing things and undoing things, from, you know, many different cultural, religious, or other background. So, you know, to... To say, you know, Sangha is one ocean is easy, but as a reality, you know, we are all karmic problems.

[97:35]

So, to become really one ocean is a really difficult thing. We have to go through a very difficult process of, you know, practicing and helping, supporting each other. So, to keep this precept is really difficult, but we should work. This is the direction we should go in our practice. Three more. I didn't read Dogen's comment. Not praising oneself nor slandering others, Buddhas and ancestors attain verification with the whole sky and the great earth.

[98:40]

When the great body is manifested, there is no inside and outside. in the sky. When the Dharma body is manifested, there is no inch of ground on the earth. So this also points out this, you know, seamless one reality throughout time and space. And this is Buddha's pure body. If this is manifested, there is no such separation between self and others. So we need to awaken to this reality and we are part of it. So there is no inside and outside in the sky. Usually we think, you know, inside of me something happens and outside of me all different things. And I like this thing, I hate that thing.

[99:41]

That is what we do. But from this seamless reality, there is no such separation between inside and outside. behavior in our daily lives should be based on this awakening to this reality of one seamless, I mean, interconnectedness. And probably the final expression is difficult to understand. That is, there is no inch of ground on the earth. When the Dharma body, this is Dharma body, is manifested, There is no inch of ground on the earth. This is a famous expression in Zen literature. That is, Dai-chi-mu-sun-do. Dai-chi-mu-sun-do.

[100:49]

Dai is great. Chi is earth, within the great earth. Mu is no, sun is inch, and do is, in this translation, I translate ground, but do can be earth, ground, or soil, or sand. This means, you know, soil and the ground, great earth and soil are exactly the same thing. So when we say the earth, all the soil is included within the earth. That means when we see, or when the Dharma body is manifested, you know, all individual beings, including ourselves, is already there. So there is no such, you know, separate,

[101:53]

individuality. The collection of individuality and this seamless reality through time and space are exactly the same thing. That is what I always say using the example of one hand and five fingers. Each finger is independent, individual. different shapes and different names and different ways of moving. But when we see this as one hand, you know, all five fingers are still there. It's not negated, it's not disappeared, but still there. But somehow these five fingers work as exactly one hand. There's no such separation. So, when we study and try to keep this precept of not surrendering others, we need to awake to this reality of, you know, even though we are individual fingers, we are actually one hand.

[103:15]

Precept is from the Bonmokyo. This is on stinginess and abuse. A disciple of the Buddha must not be stingy or encourage others to be stingy. He should not create the cause, condition, method, or karma of stinginess. As a bodhisattva, whenever a destitute person comes for help, he should give that person what he needs. If instead, out of anger and resentment, he denies all assistance, refusing to help with even a penny, a needle, a blade of grass, even a single sentence or verse or a phrase of Dharma, but instead scolds and abuses that person, he commits a parashika offense.

[104:34]

These final eight, nine, and tenth precepts are about greed, anger or hatred, and ignorance. And Bodhidharma's comment on the eighth precept is, Self-nature is wondrous and imperceptible. Within the Dharma, that is, the all-pervading true reality, not arousing greed, is called the precept of not begrudging the Dharma or materials. and Dogen Zenji's comment, not begrudging the Dharma or materials. Even one phrase or one verse of Dharma is nothing but the expression of the reality of the myriad phenomenal beings and the hundred grasses.

[105:41]

One Dharma and one verification are Buddhas and ancestors. One should give them whenever requested, never begrudge them." So, this means, not only the material, but one phrase means one phrase of Dharma, or Buddha's teaching, expressed as a verse or phrase. in any Buddhist text. Those are, you know, one of dharmas. And material things are also dharmas. And usually this is, so this is about offering or giving dharma. We should not begrudge, clinging, this is my dharma. I understand this, my understanding, like the monk, Todan's monk, who wants to keep his, what he said, secret, his own personal possession.

[106:50]

That is begrudging. So, when asked, we offer my understanding of Dharma. And when we have something, and when we meet someone in need, we need to offer some material things. Because both, you know, phrase or teachings or Dharma and material are actually, you know, part of Buddha's Dharma body. It's not my personal possession. It's already 5 to 11, but please let me talk two more. I'll just read them and make a very short comment. Ninth, in Bonmo Kyo, Ninth Major Precept on Anger and Resentment.

[107:53]

A disciple of the Buddha shall not harbor anger or encourage others to be angry. he should not create the causes, conditions, methods, or karma of anger. As a disciple of the Buddha, he ought to be compassionate and filial, helping all sentient beings develop the good root of non-contention. If, instead, he insults and abuses sentient beings, or even transformation beings, such as deities and spirits, with harsh words, hitting them with his fist or feet, or attacking them with a knife or club, or harbors grudging even when the victim confesses his mistakes and humbly seeks forgiveness in a thought. conciliatory voice, the disciple commits a parajika offense.

[109:01]

So this is about anger and hatred. Bodhidharma says, self-nature is wondrous and imperceptible. Within the egoless dharma, not reifying the ego is called the precept of not being angry. Of course, this egoless is an Atman, and ego is Atman. An Atman. I'm not sure if this English translation, ego and egoless, is right for Atma and Anatman. But this means another possible English word is self. You know, we usually think, this is a self, and there is a self, this is me. But there is no such thing called me.

[110:05]

This is only five skandhas. That is what the Heart Sutra said. And even five skandhas are empty. So there is no such thing called me, or self, or ego, or Atman. But still we cling to something called me. And this clinging is the cause of anger. because I want to protect this, keep this safe. So if someone attacks this me, I want to protect it. And yet, if the others are stronger than me, I have fear. And if those others are against me, keep trying to attack me, I have anger and also fear and hatred. So this grasping to the self is cause of anger.

[111:16]

So we should let go of this clinging. And Dogen Zen's comment is, neither withdrawing nor setting forth, neither being real nor being void. Therein you will see the ocean of bright clouds, the ocean of magnificent clouds." You know, withdraw and setting forth is two things we do. Setting forth means go forward to observe things and checking things and evaluate things and judge if this is something we want or something we don't want. This is the fact we usually do in our daily lives. And withdrawing means we stop that kind of things.

[112:20]

interaction with others and return to the self. That is, this word withdrawing is Taiho. Usually Taiho is a negative word. Withdrawing means or backsliding. Usually, you know, going forward, go ahead, is a positive word. But Dogen used this word, taiho, when he described his zazen. Our zazen is going inward, not outward, and letting go of our thought or judgment or perceptions. So this is two aspects of our activities. One is to go out. and do things with object.

[113:22]

Another is return home and be silent. And being real or being void. I'm not sure. Real is a literal translation of the word he used, that is jitsu. But this is same, I think, in this case, same as wu and mu. who is being and who is non-being or emptiness. When we go forward, go out and work together with objects, we see these are there. And we work with all those things. But when we return home and letting go of thought, all those things usually we think there are, are not really there. It's empty, like clouds.

[114:24]

You know, clouds are the symbol of emptiness. But clouds have... there's no such fixed entity called cloud. It's just floating water on the air. And when it rains, it returns to the earth. So then only the blue sky is there. So clouds are used as a symbol of emptiness and impermanence. And yet clouds have a great power. It almost controls our life. by, you know, making rain. If we don't have rain, that is a problem. If we have too much rain, that is a problem. If we have snow, that makes, you know, some difficulties or we are happy to see, you know, beautiful snow. So, clouds are empty and it's not really there.

[115:29]

And yet, it has a big power and influence to us. That is what Dogen says, you know, bright clouds and magnificent clouds. So, you know, there is an expression, ho-un, dharma clouds, and ho-u, dharma rain. So, this clouds of dharma, that is empty and yet has a lot of power and influence. So, when we see, when we freely act or practice both going forward and return home. And see both wu and mu, or being and non-being, or being and emptiness, freely.

[116:36]

You know, everything becomes bright, beautiful, magnificent clouds. So there's no anger there. Hopefully. This is, you know, how can I say, point Dogen talked about this precept. Tenth, the final precept. Tenth Major Precept on Slandering the Triple Jewel from Bon Mokyo A Buddha's disciple shall not himself speak ill of the Triple Jewel or encourage others to do so. He must not create the causes, conditions, methods, or karma of slander.

[117:37]

If a disciple hears but a single word of slander against the Buddha from externalist or evil beings, he experiences a pain similar to that of three hundred spears piercing his heart. How, then, could he possibly slander the Triple Jewel himself? If a disciple lacks faith and filial piety toward the Triple Jewel, and even assists evil persons or those of aberrant views to slander the Triple Jewel, he commits the Parājika offense. And Bodhidharma comments, Self-nature is wondrous and imperceptible. Within the Dharma, which is the undivided reality, not allowing a dualistic view of sentient beings and Buddha, is called the precept of not slandering the Three Treasures.

[118:53]

So, in his comment, he said, to make discrimination or separation between human beings, or sentient beings and Buddha, or deluded beings and enlightened Buddha, or samsara and nirvana, to make such discrimination is itself surrendering the three treasures. So, samsara and nirvana are one, and Buddhas and sentient beings are one. But we have to say these are one because these are two, also. This is what Dogen said in the very beginning of the Genjo Koan. In the first sentence, he said, there are human sentient beings and Buddha, delusion and enlightenment. But in the second sentence of Genjo Koan, he said, there's no such things. And the third sentence, he said, again, there are Buddha and sentient beings, and delusion and enlightenment.

[119:58]

So he used these, you know, expression, there are two and there are one, freely, and we need to see the reality from both sides. But if we cling to the separation, and we are in samsara, and we are suffering, so we need to go to another place named Nirvana. If we think in that way, you know, we are slandering the three treasures. Dogen Zen's comment, The Buddha manifests his body and expounds, I think expounds instead of expounded, expounds the Dharma. Present tense.

[121:05]

These three treasures are the crossing point of the world. The virtue of the three treasures return to the ocean of all-knowing wisdom and are immeasurable. We should respectfully accept, attend, and serve the three treasures. This is how we, you know, take refuge in Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha. And when Dogen Zenji talks about the Sanshin, or three minds, and especially the big mind, or magnanimous mind, he said, and within the, not magnanimous mind, I'm sorry, nurturing mind, the mind of parents, he said, We should consider the Three Treasures as our only child. That means we should take care of the Three Treasures, Buddha, Dharma, Sangha, as parents take care of their children.

[122:14]

Please. What is the crossing point of the world? crossing, going to cross the river between samsara and nirvana. Actually there is no such river, there is no such, you know, separation between this shore and other shore. But, and yet there is. I mean, there is. transformation. Otherwise, we keep, continue to live, creating, you know, suffering. So, there must be some transformation. But this transformation does not mean we need to go somewhere else.

[123:15]

But, you know, this three treasures is a crossing point of this transformation. Does it make sense? OK. Well, I'm sorry I talked too long. Or this retreat is too short. Maybe we should have one week retreat. Well, let me read the final three lines in Kyojo Kaimo. Stop talking. The above outlines an explanation of the 16-fold Buddha precept. When you receive instructions or they are conferred on you, you should receive them with veneration. Now I will read you. Means, this is an explanation of the precept.

[124:19]

the recipient receives, and now the person who offers or presents this teaching, leads the recipient to the precept master. That is what this, now I lead you, means. Well, we didn't have enough time, so my talk is very incomplete. But, anyway, I read the entire text. Finally, I'd like for the people who receive the precepts tomorrow, I'd like to show the Kechi Myaku, because usually this is not open to show, so I'll show how it is like. This is a kechimiya kufu for lay people.

[125:22]

When people receive a precept, tokudo or ordination, I ask them to copy by themselves. But this is printed. I made. This is my handwriting. And I asked a printer in Japan to make a printing. And this is what kechi-myaku is like. You know, this red line is called kechi-myaku. Ketsu means blood. And myaku is vein, blood vein. So this is a blood vein of Buddha's wisdom life. And this circle is a symbol of this network of interdependent origination. And the first person is Shakyamuni Buddha.

[126:29]

And from Shakyamuni, it goes to Mahakasyapa, Ananda, and goes to the Bodhidharma, And Chinese ancestors and Dogen. And Dogen brought the Dharma to Japan. And it continued to my teacher, Uchiyama Kosho Roshi, and myself. And this vein, life vein, is transmitted to the recipient. And from the recipient, this line goes back to return to the ocean, return to the circle. So this is one seamless flow or circulation of Buddha's wisdom life. So, of course, this transmission

[127:35]

from India to China and China to Japan. China to Japan is historically true, but I'm not sure about India to China. So this is not historical truth, but this is an expression of our understanding of Dharma, how it has been transmitted and how it leads to us. and how, you know, this Dharma is connected, or how we are connected with, you know, Buddhas and ancestors in this lineage. And, I think, Joe asked me to talk about Raku-su. Raksu is another thing the recipient receives when they receive the precept.

[128:43]

can I say, simplified form of orchestra. And traditionally, there are three kinds of orchestra, three sides. Five-strip, seven-strip, or more than nine strips. And raksu is a simplified form of five-strip orchestra. And I'm not really sure what is the origin of this simplification. I don't know who or when it happened. But, at least in Japan, when we are not in a formal situation, monks or priests put on rakusu instead of okesa. And when laypeople receive the precepts, those laypeople receive also rags as a symbol of Buddha's robe.

[129:54]

And probably I said during my lectures, this robe, or okesa, is a symbol of this network of interdependent origination. Originally, in India, Buddhist monks collected discarded rugs and washed them and dyed them and put them together. That means those materials had no market value. It was discarded. No market value means defiled by people's attachment. It's free from attachment. It's abandoned or thrown away. That is what is called purity in Buddhism. Now, today, we use the new, favorite material, but we cut the material into small pieces and sew it together.

[131:08]

That means we cannot use it for something else. So, people don't want to steal. This also means free from greed. This cannot be an object of our greed or desire. So this is a symbol of interconnectedness and also purity or liberation or freedom from clinging or attachment. So when we put on okesa or lakshu, think we are wrapped with Buddha's teaching, wearing Buddha's robe. But usually, often people think this is a kind of a uniform of Buddhist monks, priests, or lay people, but uniform is not the right word.

[132:21]

I think uni-form is one form. Uni means one, right? That is ichi, and sou is form. But, okesa is called musou, no form. You know, when we chant the verse of love, we say, Dai-sai-geda-puku. Geda-puku means love of liberation. And, Mu-so-fuku-den-e. Fuku-den. Den is a field. or rice paddy, actually. The field, they grow rice in Asian countries. And fuk is happiness. So this is a rice field.

[133:24]

The happiness grows. So this muso and fukuden are two names of this okesa. And these two are same as You know, same as the clouds. You know, clouds is empty and yet it's beautiful and it has power or function. And the power or function of ogesa or lakshu is, you know, it grows the happiness of nirvana and allows us to be free from suffering or samsara. And yet it has no form. So, please don't think, you know, this is a uniform, but this is no form. OK, I think that's what I have to say. Any questions?

[134:26]

Maybe we don't have time to question. I think you are tired. I'm tired also. I'm sorry.

[134:34]