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Good morning, everyone. During this precept retreat, we studied Dogen Zenjutsu Comment on the 16 precepts we received in this tradition. And yesterday, I talked until the repentance, page 2, and I already talked on Dogen Zenji said in this text, but there is another verse of repentance appeared in the commentary on this text, and I think it's interesting and important. I'd like to introduce another verse of repentance and go forward. This verse of repentance appeared in a sutra named Kan Fugen Gyo, maybe.

[01:06]

Kan Fugen Kyo, maybe. I never read this sutra, and there must be no English translation, so you don't need to write down. But in this sutra, there is a verse of repentance, and that is a different kind of repentance. The verse of repentance written in this text, that is, I have made countless bad karmas in the past. All of them were caused by beginningless greed, anger, and ignorance. Born of my body, speech, and thought, now I make complete dependence of all. This is a kind of, not popular, but a common verse of repentance in Soto Zen tradition.

[02:11]

So we recite this verse. But this one is a little different. From Kang Fugen Kyo, let me read the verse. This is my translation. The ocean, the ocean of all karmic hindrances, arises solely from delusive thoughts. If you wish to make repentance, sit in upright posture and be mindful of the true reality. All misdemeanors are like frost and dew. The sun of wisdom unable them to melt away. Let me read it again. The ocean of all karmic hindrances arise thoroughly from delusive thoughts.

[03:15]

If you wish to make repentance, sit in upright posture and be mindful of the true reality. All misdemeanors are like frost and dew. The sun of wisdom enables them to melt away. In the first line, the ocean of karmic hindrances, this ocean means infinite, boundless. So our karmic hindrance is really boundless for many lifetimes. We have been, you know, living without a clear understanding and awakening to reality. Therefore, we have been living in a very kind of a self-centered way. And therefore, we make many twisted, harmful karmas.

[04:22]

And those karmic hindrances arise solely from delusive thought. Delusive thought is a translation of Japanese word, mo, or Chinese word, mō zō, or mō sō. Mo is delusive, and so is the same so in, like, perception. And Seng Uche Moro said, let go of thought, or opening the hand of thought. He used this word, so. And an important point is, mo-so sounds like, you know, there is a delusive thought and not-delusive thought. What is not delusive thought in English? Right thought. Correct thinking. But this is not opposition of correct thought.

[05:30]

But all thoughts are delusive. That is what it means. So this means there are two kinds of thoughts. This doesn't mean two kinds of thoughts. And this is because we don't have the right thought. and we have delusive thought, therefore we create karmic hindrances. But, as far as we are living based on our thought, thought is... maybe delusive is not the right English word. Maybe this... fictitious might be better. You know, all the thought is fiction. It's not real reality. Also, within our thought, we kind of process the stimulation we receive through, you know, six sense organs, and we create a perception and thinking and judgment and take action based on that.

[06:33]

We don't really see the reality, the true reality, before being processed within our mind. So, as far as we are taking action based on, you know, the thought from our perception, then that creates karmic hindrances. So, actually, all thoughts are delusions or illusions or fictions. So, within this thinking, we feel, I did something wrong, and I want to make repentance. That is, of course, a good thing, in terms of good and bad. But still, this dependence itself is fictitious. Of course, it's important and the right thing to do, but still fictitious.

[07:38]

So, if you wish to really make repentance, this verse says, sit in upright posture and be mindful of the true reality. True reality is a very common word I often talk about, that is, this soul. And, you know, jitsu is true or genuine, and so is usually translated as form. But to translate this, in this case, this so as form is kind of a confusion. So, I translate this as true, instead of form, true reality. And this is a part of longer expression, Shōhō Jissō. This is one of the key words in the Lotus Sutra.

[08:49]

Shōhō means all beings. In this case, this Hō, or Dharma, means beings. So, true reality for all beings. So we need to be mindful of the true reality of all beings. That is what our Zen sitting practice means. And I translate being mindful, but actually the word used in this verse is shi. It means to think. So, more literal translation is, sit in upright posture and think of true reality. But this thinking is not right. That's why I translated, be mindful of, but be mindful of still kind of a problem. It's not something we do using our mind.

[09:53]

But, you know, when we sit, we let go of thought. So, this thinking is the thinking of not thinking. By not thinking, by letting go of our thought, we are free from fictitious thinking. So, sitting, When we sit, we don't contemplate, or we don't think of, or we don't be mindful of some object called a true reality. If there is a separation between person sitting and observing the true reality as object, then this is not Zazen at all. But what we do in our Zazen, sitting within this upright posture, facing the wall and letting go of thought, is just be, be part of this true reality. I don't like this word, part, but, you know, we are part, we are one of the all dharmas.

[11:00]

We are not the outside of all dharmas. We are part of all dharmas. We are inclusive. So the way, the true reality of all beings means the way all beings are. And we are part of all beings. And yet, when we start to think, we become like an observer. I observe, you know, the true reality, the way all things are, and create a kind of a principle, or a law, or some kind of, you know, statement, and think this is the way all things are. As far as we are doing such action, we are observer and we are outside of all beings. But by letting go of that kind of action and really just sit, we are simply part of all beings. So we don't see anything in our dazen.

[12:04]

We don't contemplate of anything. We don't meditate. We do nothing but sitting. That is what just sitting or shikantaza means. So does that mean that you're not even aware of your thoughts? Aware of what? Aware of your thoughts, you said? That you're aware that you have thoughts, you just are? Yes, that's what I'd like to know. Of course, you know, if there is... thoughts are always coming and going, and we let go. Without awareness of thoughts coming, we cannot let go. So, whenever we found we are, how can I say, interacting with those thoughts, you know, when we sit facing the wall, there is no object, so there is no interaction with

[13:09]

outside things, but thoughts coming up from our consciousness become the object, and often we entertain ourselves with those thoughts, or sometimes we fight against those thoughts, or sometimes we try to, you know, chase after the thought. If we do such a thing, there is a separation between person sitting and thought coming from the consciousness. When there is such separation between subject and object within ourselves, then that is not Zazen. So we stop doing such a thing and let's go and return to sitting. That is what I said yesterday. So, there is of course awareness, because our mind is still working. But if we think there is some object of awareness. Then we have to let go even the awareness. Where we are?

[14:13]

I forget. I'm sorry. Think of true reality. So we don't even think of true reality. And this verse is saying this sitting itself is repentance. So, you know, the verse of repentance in this text is about some kind of particular actions or harmful karmas. And when we feel, I made some mistakes, I feel sorry, or bad, or painful, so I make repentance. Of course, that is what repentance means. But, when we see, you know, this sitting is itself repentance, it's much kind of deeper.

[15:21]

more subtle. It's not only about some harmful actions. You know, even when we do something good to help others, or something good to, for example, to study Dharma, or to practice, you know, still You know, if we take really deep and close look at the reality happening inside of ourselves, we see three poisonous minds still working. You know, for example, when I was young, right after I studied, I became a monk or a priest. I want to study. Buddhist teaching, and I want to practice more than others, and I want to be a good disciple of Buddha, or a good disciple of my teacher.

[16:27]

You know, that was kind of a motivation of my study and practice. And it's not bad. Without that kind of motivation, I couldn't practice, I couldn't study. When I observe or look at the inside of myself, there is a greed and a competitive mind. I want to be a good student, to be a better student than others. So I often, not often, but I almost always want to go to the Zen Dojo earlier than others. And I want to study more than others. I want to get more knowledge and understanding than others. This competitive mind creates... what is the word?

[17:28]

samsara. Sometimes I feel I'm better than others, but more often I think others are better than me. So I feel, you know, how can I say, envy, and also I have a kind of anger towards myself, and this anger, and sometimes I hate myself, and this anger and hatred become energy to study more. This is not a bad thing, studying and practice, but still that driving force of this action, this good action in a sense, is poisonous mind. But we don't see, usually we don't see that motivation itself is poisonous. motivation of doing good things can be poisonous. And it's very difficult to find that poisonous motivation, because we are doing good, and people might praise me.

[18:47]

And, you know, we are often, how can I say, how can I say, drunk or blind because of my, you know, good actions. That is one example and another might be, I often talk about my experience at Vale Zendo in Massachusetts. Three monks from Japan lived in the woods in western Massachusetts. And we cut the trees, cleared the land, and tried to establish a small zendo. So, that work was for the Dharma. And I believed my activities are based on my vow. to share Dharma and practice with American people. But within that work or process of establishing the place to practice, I cut many trees.

[19:59]

and killed many living beings. And one time we didn't have water there. So I dug a well with a shovel. That's why I have a problem on my right knee, I think now. So this is a result of my bad karma. Anyway, so... I dug about 10 feet and one time we had a lot of rain and the hole was completely filled with water. And next day I found a skunk was drawn and dead in the water. So, you know, my action with good motivation for the sake of Dharma, you know, some living beings are dead. But, often, because of my good motivation and people, you know, not, you know, scold me or blame me for what I was doing, so I easily kind of drunk or blind because of the good motivation.

[21:20]

And that is a problem. I mean, even when we do good things, something harmful could be done. And it's very difficult to repent of that kind of harmful things. But when we sit and let go of thoughts, let go of my idea of what I'm doing, then I naturally, become aware of what is happening inside and outside of myself. It has nothing to do with my idea, my, you know, thinking. You know, many living beings are killed with my actions. And yet I think this is a good thing. That is really twisted. And this twisted karma is really difficult to clearly see.

[22:26]

But when we sit and let go of my idea even about Buddhadharma, then we start to clearly see what is happening inside of ourselves. I practice hard because of my greed, or anger, or hatred. And as a result of my work for the Dharma, you know, many living beings could be killed. So far. You know, this is really difficult thing to repent. Because we usually don't see that. So this Zazen, I think this Zazen itself, and being part of this true reality of all beings, is really important. to keep us awake to reality happening. And, you know, many of the harmful things to living beings are done by, I think, not evil people, but by diligent and eminent, bright people

[23:49]

with a kind of a good reason, like a peace, or like a nation, or justice, you know. The war is often done with a very good word, for very good reasons. Not many evil people could, you know, cause war, but the war was done by good people. But that is a problem. And that kind of problem is very difficult to repent. So we have to be really, how can I say, deeply see what is happening inside of ourselves and what is the result of our actions with good motivation. To do so, this sitting and letting go of our idea or thinking, thought, is really important, and very important practice as a repentance.

[24:59]

So, I don't think, you know, to say, I'm sorry I made such and such a mistake, is one of the, you know, practices of repentance, and that is important. that dependence puts a kind of period on that, how can I say, harmful sequence and we can start new, fresh. But we need to be aware that there are much deeper and more subtle harmful way of three poisonous minds working. And to be aware of that, or awake to that reality, you know, Zazen as a repentance, is really important. Uchiyama Roshi, my teacher always said, repentance, vow and repentance should be always together.

[26:05]

So, this simple sitting, just sitting, is, from one side, this is a practice of bow, bodhisattva bow. And from another side, the same sitting is a practice of repentance. So both are included in this really simple practice of just sitting. And the final two lines in this verse is, all misdemeanors are like frost and dew, the sun of wisdom, unable them to melt away. I think this misdemeanor is a problem. I think misdemeanor is action, right? I don't think action can be melt away. Action already done cannot be melt away.

[27:07]

But I think, kind of, a harmful influence from that action done in the past can be melted away. But the action already done cannot be melted away. So, that is a better English word. The original Chinese word is tsumi or zai, shu zai. Shu means many. Same Shu in Shujo. And Zai, when I look up the Japanese English dictionary, this means sin, guilt, and fatales. I think I write down. Yeah. Sin, crime, fault, misdemeanor, wrongdoing, misconduct, offense.

[28:10]

This is not a translation workshop, so if you have any idea, please let me know. Anyway, this is another verse of repentance. Then, let me go to the next section, that is, three refuges. This is the first set of the three precepts within sixteen precepts we received. Around the middle of page two, three refuges. Next, take refuge in the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha. There are three aspects in the Three Treasures. These are the Absolute Three Treasures, the Manifesting Three Treasures, and the Maintaining Three Treasures.

[29:21]

The unsurpassable True Awakening, or Anuttara Samyak Sambodhi, is the Buddha Treasure. The reality that is pure and free from defilements is the Dharma treasure. The virtue of peace and harmony is the Sangha treasure. These three comprise the absolute three treasures. The one who was born in the world and realized awakening is the Buddha treasure. The reality to which the Buddha awakened is the Dharma treasure. Those who learned the Buddha and the Dharma are the Sangha treasure. These are called the Manifesting Three Treasures. The one who appears in the empty space or in the dusty world in order to edify heavenly and human beings is the Buddha-treasure, the truth that expresses itself in the form of the Buddha's teachings stored in the ocean treasury and recorded in the scriptures on the Patra leaves.

[30:48]

in order to transform, animate, and inanimate beings, is the Dharma treasure. Those who relieve others of all different kinds of sufferings and release them from the burning house of the three worlds are the Sangha treasure. These are the manifesting... I'm sorry, the maintaining three treasures. When you take refuge in the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha, you become qualified as one who has acquired the great precept of all Buddhas. Continue as a student of the Buddha. Do not become a follower of other ways. So, when we make repentance in the precept ceremony, that means we make commitment to change the direction of our life from ego-centered way to the way or path of bodhisattva.

[32:08]

That means to live together with all beings in harmony. Next, we receive the precept of three refuges. That means taking refuge in Buddha, taking refuge in Dharma, and taking refuge in the Sangha. And, according to Mahayana Buddhism, and here Dogen Zenji mentioned, there are three, not kinds, but three aspects of the Three Treasures. And those three are, in my translation, Absolute Three Treasures, Manifesting Three Treasures, and Maintaining Three Treasures. The original word for those three aspects of the three treasures is Ittai, Sambo, and Genzen, Sambo,

[33:32]

And juu-ji. San-bo. San means three. Ho means treasure. Sometimes translated as three treasures or triple treasure. And ittai literally means one body. That means those three are one thing. It's not three different things. That is what this Ittai means. So I translate this as absolute three treasures. And Gen means appear. And Zen means in front or in front. That means the three treasures appear in this world. And ju means dwell.

[34:39]

And ji means maintain. So, I translate this as maintaining three treasures. And I explain each one of them. Not me, but Dogen. First, he made a comment on the As the absolute three treasures, the Buddha treasure is the unsurpassable true awakening, or Anuttara Samyak Sambodhi. This awakening is itself Buddha. And the reality that is pure and free from defilements is the Dharma treasure. And the virtue of peace and harmony is the Sangha treasure.

[35:49]

These three comprise the absolute Three Treasures. This is Dogen Zen's comment on the Three Treasures. I mean absolute Three Treasures. And this means The reality of all beings itself is three treasures, Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha. And, as I often say, according to the Lotus Sutra, the true reality of all beings is expressed as the ten suchness. And ten-suchness means, well, it takes another one hour when I start to talk on this. But, basically it means we are living within time and space. And, you know, each one of us existing as kind of a unique

[36:58]

beings, unique person or unique beings, and it has its own form, nature, substance or body, and energy and function. So each one of us has a unique uniqueness. And that is the first five of ten suchnesses. And the next four suchnesses are cause, result, and conditions, and recompense, In, in Japanese, in, nen, ka, and ho. I think these are the relation with other beings within time and space.

[38:03]

You know, cause and result is a relation within time. You know, the most common example used in Buddhist teaching is seed and flower or fruit. When seeds are planted, it starts to grow, and when it fully matures, it blooms flower and bear fruit. Seed is cause and fruit is result. So this is a relation or connection within time. Seed becomes a mature tree and bear fruit and within fruit there is another seed for next generation. This is how things are connected within time, as a cause and result, and cause and result.

[39:07]

And conditions means, even when seeds are planted, if there are certain conditions lacking, the seeds cannot sprout. Seeds need water, some humidity, and temperature, and sunbeam, and all other things. And not only the things or factors that actively support these seeds to grow, but also things that didn't happen. For example, if a seed was planted, if a bird came and picked and ate, then this seed cannot grow. So the fact that no bird came to eat this seed,

[40:10]

is also conditions this seed can grow. That means all the birds didn't eat this seed are helping, supporting this seed to grow. So not only things happened, but also things didn't happen help this seed to grow. That means everything. even, you know, how can I say, not only things on the Earth, but, you know, we have certain temperature, because there is a certain distance between Sun and Earth. You know, Sun, what keeps this distance between Sun and Earth? We don't know. I think, you know, everything in this universe, allow Sun and Earth, you know, in keeping in a certain distance. If Earth is even a little bit closer to the Sun, you know, the condition on the Earth might be very different.

[41:20]

Or, if it's more distant than where it is, then Earth is much colder. So, we are right within the same distance. That's why, you know, this form of living beings can be on this Earth. So, the energy or power which keeps this distance between Sun and Earth is also supporting this seed to grow. So really everything is supporting to this seed to grow. So this condition is a relationship of this seed to all beings within the space. and cause and result is within the time. And recompense means when this seed grows and becomes fully matured, the tree blooms flowers.

[42:36]

When flowers bloom, butterflies and bees and other insects come to get nectar. So, this seed, when it is in a very immature stage, has something to offer to others. That is what decompense means. So, when we are immature, we receive the support from all beings. And when we become fully matured, we also offer something to this network of interdependent origination. So, those four, suchness, means, you know, these unique tiny things can exist and continue to exist and live as a plant. because of the support from everything within space and time.

[43:49]

And, actually, there is no such independent thing called a seed or a shouhaku beside this interconnection. We are simply one knot of the net, Indra's net, and there's no such thing as a net or a knot. You know, within the net or a knot, we think we are independent. But without this connection of each thread, there's no such thing as a knot. So, not simply a connection of all different causes and results, and causes and conditions. That is what this true reality of all beings means. And those are nine suchnesses.

[44:52]

And finally, the tenth suchness is from the beginning to the end. complete, how can I say, the word is complete identity of from the beginning to the end. That means from beginning to the end. This is one seamless reality. There is no such separation. So, and in my understanding, this is what Dharmakaya means. So there is no such, as I said yesterday, there is no such, you know, flow of time. This is just one moment, from the very beginning to the very end. And this is one seamless space. And all beings are interconnected with each other, without any independence.

[45:58]

So, actually, in the case of absolute three treasures, this reality itself, the Buddha's Dharmakaya itself, is Buddha treasure. And the way things are within interconnection, that is what peace and harmony means, is Dharma treasure. And each and everything within this time and space a Sangha treasure. So, within these absolute three treasures, it has nothing to do with, you know, with the certain religion called Buddhism. The reality of all beings living together and interconnected itself is Buddha. and it's Dharma, and it's Sangha, and we are part of it, whether we become Buddhist or not.

[47:09]

So, that is the first aspect of the Three Treasures. Please. Is this, in your inspection, the one very jewel that you spoke of? Yes, yes. And is this the same, as I understand, Yes. That is what one body means. There is no separation. And the second aspect of the Three Treasures is called manifesting. Dogen Zenji says, the one who was born in the world and realized awakening is the Buddha treasure. This refers to Shakyamuni Buddha. He was born as a human being in a certain place, India, born at a certain time, about 2,500 years ago.

[48:20]

and that person awakened to this reality. So, in this case, Shakyamuni Buddha was a Buddha treasure. So, this is, in a sense, this is a manifestation of these absolute three treasures within time and space. And, The reality to which the Buddha, in this case Shakyamuni Buddha, awakened is the Dharma treasure. According to the history of Buddhism, when Shakyamuni Buddha was sitting under the Bodhi tree, he awakened to the reality of all beings.

[49:26]

That awakening to that reality makes him Buddha. And the Dharma is the reality to which Shakyamuni awakened to. And when he made the decision to stand up his Dazen and walk to the Deer Park to share that awakening and that Dharma he awakened to, in order to share that truth or reality, he needed to explain what he awakened to, what he experienced, using words. And that is the teaching about this truth or reality. So, what Buddha taught, using words, are also called Dharma.

[50:30]

So Buddha's teachings are also part of Dharma treasures. And the Sangha, My translation is, those who learn the Buddha and the Dharma are the Sangha treasure. I'd like to make a change on this translation. The original word is very simple. Butsu, Ho, Ze, So, Go. Gaku means study. And Butsu is Buddha.

[51:33]

And Ho is Dharma. And ze means this. So is Sangha. Ho is treasure. So, I translate, I added those people, those who study Buddha and Dharma, is Sangha treasures. The problem is whether this is two words or one word. This can be buddhadharma. When I made this translation, I thought this is buddha and dharma, people who studied buddha and dharma. But it could be one word as buddhadharma, as a compound.

[52:37]

I think that makes the sentence, at least the sentence, simpler. And also, another problem is, not a problem, but I think this is a mistake. That means I made sangha treasures plural. It should be singular. But I think I made this plural because, you know, the subject of this sentence is those. Those people are plural. So, if we make sangha treasures as plural, this means each of those people are sangha treasure. But this sangha treasure is one thing, so this should be singular. So, And are you changing learning to study?

[53:44]

I think study is better than learning. I think when I made this translation, I think study is something intellectual, and learning is more practical. But learning is not so practical. Practical, but learning is not right in the case of studying Buddha Dharma. You know, this is... there is the same problem when Dogen said, to study Buddha's ways, to study the Self. This study, fat is study. And this word, study, in Japanese, is manabu. And, in Japanese word, manabu, comes from manebu. This mane means to imitate.

[54:48]

Imitate. Like when a baby bird learns or studies how to fly, they imitate what their parents do. That is how a bird studies or learns flying. That is the word. So, to follow or study or learn means to imitate what the parents or teachers or predecessors are doing. That is fat studying. So, this studying is not simply memorizing what is written. So, this includes doing. So if English word study has not connotation, that is OK. So that is a problem. What about practice?

[55:55]

But intellectual study should be also included. It's practice includes study. Can you use them together, the study and practice? Yeah, then the English became messy and vague. It's just a different culture. I know. So we have to redefine what study means in Buddhist texts. I was going to say, there are things one studies with the body. I studied Aikido once. Not only body, also mind. And the mind. Well, right. But there are things one studies with both. Yeah, that's a problem. Whichever word we use, we have problem. That's why we need to see the reality. OK, so that is sangha treasure.

[56:57]

That means, you know, In the case of manifesting the Three Treasures, Shakyamuni Buddha, who was born in India about 2,500 years ago, was Buddha's treasure. And the reality Buddha awakened to, and Buddha's teaching Buddha offered, to share that truth or reality with others are also Dharma treasure. And a group of people or a community of people who study this Buddha Dharma or Buddha and Dharma are Sangha treasure. This is Genzen Sambo or Manifesting Three Treasures means. And the third one is Jū-ji-sambo.

[58:02]

Jū, as I said, is dwelling or abiding and maintaining. This means, when Shakyamuni Buddha died, Buddhist Sangha lost one of the three treasures. That is Buddha. But the history of Buddhism continued. And those three treasures have been maintained for, you know, more than 2,500 years. So after Buddha's death, you know, there are some things that maintain those three treasures. I mean, this Dharma, and practice, and community, and tradition. That is called maintaining three treasures. And Dogen Zenji's comment on the Buddha treasure in this maintaining three treasures is,

[59:07]

is the Buddha treasure. This empty space is koku. And the dusty world is jinchu. In this text, these kanjis are included, so you don't need to copy the kanji. Ko and ku. Ko means void. And ku is empty. I translate this as empty space. And Jin Chu is dusty world. Chu is inside or within dusty world.

[60:25]

That means, you know, Buddha appears after Shakyamuni died. This is after Shakyamuni died, Buddha appears within empty space and also this dusty world. This also means as an emptiness. And as certain beings, or in Japanese, Mu and U. Does it make sense? Buddha appears as an emptiness and also as a being. to teach us, to enable us to awake to the same reality Shakyamuni awakened to. And this can be two aspects of Buddha's teaching, or two sides of one reality.

[61:36]

And, you know, as a common sense, the Buddha treasure in the earth, maintaining three treasures, is this kind of thing. I mean, statue, Buddha statue, is considered to be the Buddha treasure or Buddha's relics. Something that can be the symbol of Buddha. Those are kind of Buddha treasure within dusty world, taking certain form. But these forms are also empty. So, that is Buddha treasure after Shakyamuni Buddha, you know, passed away. Does it make sense? Buddha appeared as emptiness and as a being. And this Buddha statue is one of the beings that are a symbol of Buddha.

[62:47]

And, you know, we make prostration towards Buddha almost every morning. And it seems like we worship that statue, but we don't really worship the wooden statue. Because this statue is just a form that is a symbol of empty reality. So, actually, when we bow to Buddha's statue, we bow to this reality as a whole. That means Buddha's Dharmakaya. But it's very difficult to worship Dharmakaya because it has no form. So, this is a kind of appearance as a symbol of this formless Dharmakaya. And, because we need certain objects when we do certain forms at the ceremony, we bow toward this statue.

[63:57]

So, this statue is not really Buddha from one side, but from another side, This is really a Buddha. I mean, you know, this... Please. Yeah, actually everything appeared within this time and space are Buddha. Because they are empty. So we take refuge in Buddha, Dharma and Sangha as one seamless reality throughout time and space. But in certain time and space, we need certain things. Because we have certain form, certain life, certain way of doing things.

[65:02]

We need certain objects. So we kind of use those objects, in this case a piece of wood. That is one understanding. But I don't think Togen Zenji completely agrees with that idea. According to him, this is really a Buddha. That means the wood, piece of wood, is one of the all beings. And this is really empty. So this is really a Buddha. and also people who made the Buddha statue made with, you know, faith. You know, when you saw raksu or okesa, each stitch you say, I don't know if you really say or not, but, I take refuge in Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha. That is the attitude of each stitch.

[66:06]

And people who make Buddha statues do the same thing when they make a sculpture. So their faith and their action as a practice based on the faith within the Three Treasures makes this piece of wood into a real Buddha. So when we vow to the Buddha statue, we really vow to this being, not only this being, but all the causes and conditions make this being possible. Like a sculptor's face and practice and activity and all other people's face to bow to this Buddha. Then this piece of wood functions really as a Buddha.

[67:10]

So that is a Buddha treasure, the maintaining three treasures. So, you know, sometimes when we see the, you know, leaves falling in the winter, or when the flower blooms in the spring, or when we see the moon, or when we see the ocean or water, we can see Buddha. Of course. Of course, when we see Buddha statues also. In the case of Zazen, there is no object, but we are part of this interconnectedness. And next is a Dharma treasure.

[68:28]

My translation is, the truth that expresses itself in the form of the Buddha's teachings stored in the ocean treasury and recorded in the scriptures on the Patala leaves in order to transform animate and inanimate beings is the Dharma treasure. Commonly, the Dharma treasure is, in maintaining the Three Treasures, is the written scriptures, or sutras, or commentary on the sutras, or other writings about Dharma, or Buddha's teachings, is considered to be the Dharma treasure. So, in Japan, when we are praying at a Japanese monastery, you know, it's prohibited to place a Buddhist sutra on the floor, because it lacks respect to the Dharma treasure.

[69:44]

Basically, what Dogen Zenji is saying is the same. This is the teaching of Buddha. The word, the ocean treasury, refers to the Mahayana teaching. You know, after the Shakyamuni Buddha died, after a few hundred years, maybe two or three hundred years after Buddha's death, Mahāyāna Buddhism emerged. So, usually we think, you know, Mahāyāna is written in Mahāyāna sūtras. It's not Buddha's teaching. At least, was said by this historical person, Shakyamuni, and that is true. But within Mahāyāna tradition, it is said, Mahāyāna teaching was told or taught by Shakyamuni, but it was not... the record was not transmitted, but it was hidden within the Dragon Palace in the ocean.

[71:05]

And Nagarjuna visited that dragon palace in the ocean and found the Mahāyāna Sutras and brought them back to the world. So, these scriptures stored in the ocean treasury refer to Mahāyāna teachings, such as Prajñāpāramitā Sutras. And recorded in the scriptures on the petal leaves is a kind of a leaf of a tree. And all Buddhist manuscripts are written on the leaves. So this refers to the Nikāya or Āgama sutras and Vinaya texts and also the commentary on those sutras and Vinaya.

[72:11]

written on those wood petal leaves. That means recording of Buddha's teaching and Mahayana teachings. So does that mean the scriptures were literally written on the leaves or is that a metaphorical... It's really written on the leaves. So, those are the Dharma treasures, the main three treasures. And those who relieve others of all different kinds of sufferings and release them from the burning house of the three worlds are the Sangha treasures. I put this word, others, we believe others, of, and, them, release them, them also refer to others, but this is not really in the original sentence.

[73:27]

There is no subject and no object. So, we need object in English, right? So I put others and them. But this is really not only others and them, but including ourselves. That means those who relieve others and themselves. Not only others, but first we need to relieve ourselves. The original expression here is 道一切空. If you are familiar with the Heart Sutra in Japanese, 道一切空 is part of the Heart Sutra. In the beginning, it said, KANJI EZAI BOSATSU GYOJIN HANNYA HARAMITA JI SHOKEN GOUN KAIKU DO ISSAI KU.

[74:36]

YAKU is not included, but this is, so this is the fact that Avalokiteshvara did relieve all sufferings. That is for Dogen Lord. And allow All beings released from the burning house of three, or triple worlds, that refer to samsara, transmigration within samsara. So, people who are, you know, working to to release all suffering and to enable all beings to escape, not escape, release from the burning house.

[75:40]

And this triple treasure is called the burning house in the Lotus Sutra. And this three-triple world is burning with the flame of the three-poisonous mind. So our life is burning. This three-triple world does not mean certain places, but this is the three-triple world. We are burning with the three-poisonous mind. And we are working to, you know, enable ourselves and others, you know, being free from this burning house and released from this suffering within samsara. Please. I guess I'm having trouble with this. So the burning house of the three worlds You said the three worlds is the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha?

[76:47]

No. The world of desire, and the world of form, and the world of no form. That is samsara. So, those are the three aspects of the Three Treasures. And we take refuge to all those three aspects of the Three Treasures. That is what I take refuge means. And take refuge in Chinese and Japanese expression is Ki-e. Ki means to return. And A is to rely on. So, the English expression, take refuge, is a translation of return and rely on.

[77:59]

That means, you know, when we are kids, we go out to, you know, have fun and doing things. adventures. And when we are tired or we have some problems, we return home and we can stay there in peace. There's no danger, you know, at home. That is, you know, return means return home. And A is like, you know, for kids, home is where, you know, they are taken care of. They are protected by parents. So, these three treasures, Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha, are like a home we can return to when we are in trouble with our three poisonous minds. Does the English expression take refuge in such a connotation?

[79:07]

It's good. It feels the same. So, when you take refuge to return and rely on in the Buddha Dharma and Sangha, you become qualified as the one who has acquired the greatest precept of all Buddhas. So, within this taking refuge in Sweet Treasures, it says all the precepts are already there, already attained. That means, you know, taking Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha, taking refuge in Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha itself is the precept. Taking the precept. That means we don't need other thirteen precepts.

[80:10]

because it's already included with three refuges. And yet, in order to make our understanding clear, we, not we, but Dogen Zenji, put three more, threefold pure precepts and ten major precepts. So those, according to the interpretation within Soto Zen tradition, those sixteen precepts, the repetition of the same thing, sixteen times. Does it make sense? It's already 10.30. Maybe we don't have time to talk on the next threefold peer precepts, so I think this is a good place, good point to stop talking.

[81:13]

So, any questions, please? I just said taking refuge felt good. And I looked at it, and I thought, actually, it doesn't quite include the idea of returning. When you think refuge, you think of going someplace else because you can't stay at home. I can't think of anything better. But it's like when you tell us that it means return as well as rely on, that adds something to it. Actually, another expression of taking refuge in Japanese and Chinese is Kim Myo. Ki is same, return, and Myo is life. So, Uchiyamuro-shi uses this word, kimi wo, that means, we return to the life.

[82:15]

Life means, you know, interconnectedness. And Uchiyamuro-shi uses this word, life, as a kind of, not opposition, but what is the word, as a pair of thought, or omoi, when he said letting go of thought. When letting go of thought is returning to the life, according to him. You know, life, our thinking, our thought is part of our life. But we think, we think. You know, our thinking controls our life. That is basic, can I say, upside-down view. Even though our brain is a tiny part of our life, we think brain is the owner of our life.

[83:19]

But that is really upside-down view. So we return, let go of thought and return to the life. And that is what we do in our Zazen. So in that sense, our Zazen is a practice of returning life. That means taking refuge in Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha. This is also an interesting kind of interpretation. Not traditional. Please. I'm glad that Shoro brought that up. say a refugee is the same as an attorney. And return. Another thing is, sometimes in English we use the word compliment. Compliment means? Compliment to, like you said, to make a pair. Like a compliment to returning to life.

[84:23]

It would be thinking. And I was just going to throw in that one teacher I've read about, and he was talking to the young monk, and he said, I don't know if it was Japanese, but something like, Zazen is not a difficult task, it's a way to return to your long lost home. And for me, that was a very powerful way to look at it. Zazen is not a journey to get something. Zazen is not a, how can I say, travel, not travel, but treasure hunting. But simply return home. Dusty world just And then when you first Anyway, I was thinking That that was also Saha Well, don't get uses the term Saha world a lot.

[85:36]

I was wondering what the difference was between Saha and Jinju. I Saha is a part of the Saha world. That is the name of this world. In Japanese we call it Shaba, Saha. And Saha means patience. So this is a world we need patience to live. Because we have a lot of difficulties inside and outside of ourselves. But this word Jin, or dust, can be dust. Our delusion is a dust. And, you know, all the things done with delusive ideas and desires, all the members of this world is dust. And fear, we need, of course we need patience, and also we have

[86:40]

problems. So jinchu means world of the problems. Or it's like, same as, you know, muddy water. But our practice is not to escape from muddy water. And our practice is not to escape from the burning house of three worlds. But we find nirvana right within there. So it's kind of difficult, you know, to... You know, even though it is said, release from suffering of three triple world. This doesn't mean we escape from the triple world. But a triple world and nirvana is the same place.

[87:47]

But it's up to our attitude toward life, whether we awaken to the emptiness of all beings or not. makes this world and our life, you know, burning house, or oppositional burning house. Maybe, I don't need to write it. It's cool, coolness, cool shade of Dharma. So, Another meaning of Sangha is a place where we can be released from the heat of the burning house and take a rest in the shade of Dharma. So then, just to continue to practice, as Dogen says, just even one inch of sitting on the first

[89:01]

Yeah, like here. That's really it. I had sort of a question and also a comment. It was about when you were talking about the Buddha statue as a Buddha treasure. And it was just about something I heard when I was in Korea. And I think this is a big, important issue for a person coming to America. because in Christianity, Christianity is really growing there, bowing to a Buddha statue can be seen as idolatry. And I was just wondering if that is anything, and then there's a lot of Christians that are like, or not a lot, I should say, there's been instances of Christians destroying temples and like throwing paint on like these beautiful thousand-year-old temples on the Buddha statues. In Korea? I understand in Christianity, if you understand that, that's a horrible thing to be worshipping an idol. So has that come up in Japan at all? How do you think as Buddhists we can make peace with that so there's no conflict?

[90:05]

I don't think that kind of thing happened in Japan because of the, how can I say, because of being against the idol worshipping by Christian or Islam. Because even though Christianity was introduced to Japan, same as into Korea, somehow in Japan Christianity didn't become so popular. I think, still even today, the population of Japanese Christians is less than one million. It's still very small. But other Asian countries like Korea and the Philippines, Christianity has much more power. So, I don't think, you know, Buddhist statues were destroyed by Christian people, but Buddhist statues were destroyed by Shintoists.

[91:32]

In the beginning of Meiji era, the government wanted to separate Christianity and Shintoism and destroyed some temples and Buddha statues. That was before Meiji. Christianity was first introduced to Japan in the 15th century. by a Jesuit missionary by his name, Xavier, and it became popular within 100 years.

[92:35]

But it was forbidden from, I think, the beginning of the 17th century. And so, you know, all Christianity, I mean, all Christians, People were killed, actually. So, some Christians hide themselves into mountains or remote places and continue their faith in Christianity. And those people made a statue of Mary, Maria. and looks like Avalokiteshvara. So that statue is called Maria Kannon.

[93:38]

What was the point? Your question is, how can we... I think it's a misunderstanding for Christians to say that Buddhism... they might see in Buddhism idol worship, but I think there's a misunderstanding there. I think so. Just to clarify, to make sure I've heard you properly before, did you not at some point say that at some point there was not a Buddha statue, that it was just empty so there would not be idolatry, and that at some point the Greeks or someone decided to put a statue? That is true. Let's see, after Buddha's death, about... well, not so, you know, later than Buddha, I think, let's see, just right after Buddha's death, you know, Alexander the Great invaded India.

[94:52]

And King Ashoka's grandfather fought against Alexander the Great. That is the age. Since then, since the time of Alexander the Great, Greek people lived in India and made a kind of empire in the northwestern part of India. And those Greek people started to make Buddha statues. Before that, you know, Indian Buddhists didn't make Buddha statues. Instead of Buddha, they put a Dharma wheel. So, Indian Buddhists originally thought Buddha is something formless, beyond human form. So this is interesting, you know, in the history this is a kind of a combination of Indian teaching and Greek expression of the teaching.

[96:04]

But I don't think, you know, basically, you know, what Buddha taught is to... well, I should say, Shakyamuni Buddha never thought people should worship him. He was simply a teacher. So, yeah, I think it's a misunderstanding. But even, you know, Catholic, there are many statues and I... When I ask, do they worship those statues or not, they don't think, they say, no. Those are just symbols. And that is okay. And Buddha statues are the same, I think. And, is that your question? Or just a comment? I just thought that was a different way of working with this problem.

[97:11]

Rather than using the Buddhist statues for one's own prevention. Okay, thank you. Any other questions? When you gave the example of your digging a well and finding a dead lung to make, and realize that your good action had a bad effect. My thought is that that was what you saw, but maybe you did not see all the other skunks that came and drank and were saved by this and weren't there. So the way I interpret this is we need to make repentance for all of our actions. whether we see the good or the bad, because there's always something possible that we don't see. Or am I right? Yeah, just being, existing, eating every day, we take some life.

[98:12]

So we cannot live without dependence, actually, I think. Not only certain particular actions, but being as a human. causes problems to other living beings, I think. Please. I was reacting to the same. The whole description, I guess I would ask you, is that description within, avoid doing evil, do all that is good, or what about keep the mind pure? Is that still within keep the mind pure? You know, you have the scum dying and so forth. I think to keep the mind pure means we should know that we are hungry beings. You know, Sao Kiro said, the more we sit, the more it is clear that we are deluded. So, to see we are not good is to keep our mind clear, I think.

[99:16]

When our mind becomes not clear, then we think, I'm okay. That's not really beyond good and evil, though, is it? I think it's... Of course, that is still thinking about what is purity, what is not purity, impurity. Whatever we think is not beyond good and bad. I feel it's one-sided, although I don't understand exactly why. The description does not sound to me like what I thought I heard you say other times about we need to be aware of good and evil, what this means. And in Japan, that's not such a big problem because of the culture and so forth. So then the Zen teachers, to balance that, emphasize going beyond good and evil.

[100:23]

But it didn't mean disregard it. But still, it's beyond. So when I hear descriptions like the seed and the birdies, the seed, to me, that's not beyond. I mean, that's a little bit one-sided. A bird's hungry, has to live, has baby birds. You know what I mean? For me, it's not so easy to pin down what's bad. I guess that's a question. I think I don't understand the point of your question. In these examples of good behavior, it's very clear What's good behavior, or you could say good boy, and what's not good behavior?

[101:31]

Not a good boy. But in other examples, or in folk life, or as I see it or something, it's not always so obvious. I mean, you look like you're not a good boy, but you could be not a good boy because you don't do certain ceremonies, and Taiji didn't do this. So, for somebody, they can say it's very clear. Yeah, of course. I think all those are, you know, about the idea of what is right, what is wrong, what is pure, what is not pure. Our perception, our judgment, our concept, our understanding, that's all within the realm of good and bad. And going beyond good and bad means just let go of all of them. So there's nothing beyond good and bad within the realm of our thinking.

[102:35]

Even when we say we should go beyond good and bad, and going beyond good and bad is good, that is good and bad. Going beyond good and bad means just be there. I'm letting go. As it is. Just as it is. OK. Thank you.

[102:59]