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Good morning. Today I'd like to start to talk on part three of this book, Opening the Hand of Thought. The title of this part is The Reality of the Zen, page 41. In the last section, Uchiyama Roshi discussed about the meaning of Zazen in the modern times. And now he started to talk on how to sit. And, of course, our Zazen practice is based on Dogen Zen's teaching.


in the Soto Zen tradition. But, of course, sitting practice or meditation practice has been a long history. It's said, you know, in India, before so-called Indo-Aryan people came into India. That is about 1500 B.C. before Common Era. Even before that, there is a civilization. It's called Indus civilization. Since from about 2000 B.C. and there is a, they had a city. And now we find the ruins of those cities in Harappa and Mohenjo-daro in India.


And according to some scholars of Indology, even within those ruins of the city they could find a statue of someone sitting. And some scholars think that might be people practice meditation, of course we cannot say anything for sure, but some scholars think sitting practice existed even before the Indo-Aryan came to India. And Shakyamuni Buddha was born, lived about, we are not so sure, but about 5, 5 or 6 to 4, 6 to 5 century B.E. B.E., before Kumbh Mela. Maybe 4.


We are not sure. Depending upon the source. It has almost 100 year difference. Anyway, around this time, I mean, Buddha was alive. Our friend Buddha started to practice after he left his palace. First he practiced meditation practice with two teachers. One person's name is Ararakalama. And another one is... I forget his name. Something... Lama Buddha. I forget. I'm sorry. But, around that time, meditation practice is one of the main practices for Indian spiritual practitioners.


And... At that time, you know, their kind of goal, or maybe goal is a better word, goal of their spiritual practice in India at that time was to, you know, their idea was Atman is a pure undivided soul, like a soul, but this soul within this body or flesh. That is a source of delusions. So, as far as Atman is imprisoned within this body, Atman needs to transmigrate within six realms endlessly. So, their goal is to release Atman from this prison of body. How can we let the Atman be released from this body was the goal of their practice.


And one method was meditation, sitting meditation. Another method was so-called ascetic practice. In the case of ascetic practice, they loosen the energy or power of body, weaken, in order to allow the Atman, the soul, free from the power or influence from this flesh. Then the Atman can be free from deluded way of doing things. That is one method. And another one is meditation. By practicing meditation, we try to become free from those delusions that came from our body. So first, Shakyamuni practiced that kind of meditation.


And it said he reached the highest point his teachers could teach. But somehow Buddha didn't think that is what he was looking for. So he quit that practice. And he started to practice ascetic practice for, he said, for six years. And he practiced so, you know, strictly. And his practice was such as, you know, stop breathing as much as possible. Or he ate only one grain of, one grain, of rice or wheat a day. So he tried to weaken the power of his body.


But after six years of that kind of practice, we can see a statue of Shakyamuni who When he quit that kind of practice, his body was only bone and skin. But he found that kind of practice was not also a right way. So he also quit that kind of ascetic practice and he started to... he washed his body and received some food. from a woman in the village. The rice grew well with milk. And he started to sit by himself under the so-called Bodhi tree. So, actually the very beginning of Buddhism, of Buddhist teaching, is Shakyamuni Buddha's sitting meditation practice.


And it seems, not it seems, but it's different from the meditation practice he learned from previously those two teachers. And the difference I think the basic difference between Buddha's practice or teaching and those practices done by other religious teachers is, you know, as we all know, Buddha found there are no such things called Atman. So his practice is not to release Atman from this prison called body. But he found, you know, body and mind are just a collection of five skandhas. There are no such things called anatman to be released. So his practice is different, based on different insights or philosophies.


Did he find those things before he sat down under the Bodhi tree? I thought he found those things later. You mean when he awakened he didn't know that? No, I mean when he began to sit down, when he decided, when he watched his body accept the rice and milk and sat under the Bodhi tree, at that moment he didn't have the understanding yet, did he? I don't know. I never asked him. Have you? I don't really know. Even Buddha didn't tell. speak in a fatter condition before he started to sit under the Bodhi Tree. So, I really don't know. But, according to his teaching, recorded later, his practice of meditation under the Bodhi Tree is different from what he learned. And so I'm not sure if when he started to sit under the poetry he had already that understanding clearly or not.


Maybe not. But when we try to understand from his teaching, recorded later, his practice is different, I think. And the difference is that... So this is my guess. I have no... No, how can I say, authority to say this is really true. This is my guess. You don't need to believe it. As he said later, when he started to teach those five monks at the Deer Park, what he found was a middle path between two extremes. One is The path of self-indulgence, you know, to satisfy all the desires, body and mind, you know, want.


And another is like an ascetic practice he did, what is the word, self-torment. Yeah, modification, yeah. You know, by weakening the power of our body, try to release the pure soul. But what he found was a middle path between these two, and that middle path was the Eightfold Noble Path. So his father, according to Later, in Buddhist teachings, what he found was that there is no such fixed entity called Atman, but things are gathering and collecting, and forms like body and five skandhas. And to take care of these five skandhas in a most healthy way is not being


pulled by our desire and not being another kind of desire, you know, to, how can I say, do ourselves, you know, torment. That is his path. So, he found this Middle Path and Eightfold Noble Path within his enlightenment, within his awakening. So for him, the Eightfold Noble Path was not a method to reach that point. But after he reached that point, he found that was a healthy, wholesome way of life. And after that, he practiced the Eightfold Noble Path until his death. And when he taught his students, he thought this is a path to reach the cessation of suffering.


But when his student reached the cessation of suffering, Buddha taught to continue to practice the Eightfold Noble Path. So those practices taught as the Eightfold Noble Path is not simply a method to reach there. But that was a wholesome, healthy way of life. So it's not simply a kind of a treatment to become healthy, to recover health. But this is a healthy way of life. Anyway, so, meditation practice is really important practice in entire Buddhism, any traditions of Buddhism. You know, when we read almost all the Buddhist sutras, we find when Buddha started to teach, give a Dharma talk, before that he was sitting.


Meditation. One of the examples was the introduction of the Diamond Sutra we have been studying. You know, Buddha practiced meditation in the early morning and stood up and went to the village to do tako-hatsu, to beg for food and return and eat the breakfast. and wash the bowls and sit again and started to talk to the assembly. That was, it seems, that was his day-to-day, you know, life and practice. So his meditation or sitting practice was really a part of his life, of course, one of the eightfold noble or correct path. And later in the history of Buddhism, of course, you know, there are many different sects or schools or traditions appeared.


And in each and every school, they had their own, some kind of method or approach of meditation practice. And our tradition, so-called Soto Zen tradition, founded by Dogen Zenji in Japan, is a part of that, you know, those many schools in Buddhism. And I'd like to introduce another thing, that is sitting. was not only in India, but also in China, sitting might be, not might be, was practiced, not like a Buddhism, but sitting was practiced by some people.


For example, there is one story in the book of Chuan Tzu. Do you know Chuan Tzu? He is one of the most important Taoist philosophers. Chuan Tzu lived around 4th to 3rd century BC, so not so different from Shakyamuni Buddha. Confucius lived in the 6th century, and Lao Tzu also around this 5th or 6th century, so Lao Tzu and Confucius and Shakyamuni lived around the same time, and Chuan Tzu a little later. If you have not read the book of Chuan Tzu, I recommend you to read his books. This is a really interesting book, and there are so many interesting stories


And this is one of them. This is a conversation between Confucius and one of his disciples. Of course, this is a made-up story. You know, Chinese people don't mind about made-up stories. They don't care whether it's historically true or not. Yen Hsui, Yen Hsui was one of the disciples of Confucius, said, I am improving. He said, I have some improvement in his spiritual study. Then Confucius said, What do you mean by that? The disciple said, I've forgotten benevolence and righteousness.


You know, benevolence is Jin, in Japanese pronunciation, and righteousness is Gi. And Jin and Gi is first two of five most important virtues in Confucianism. Jin, Gi, Rai, Chi, and Shin. Rai or Rei. Jin is benevolence, and Gi is righteousness or justice. And lai is courtesy, the etiquette. And chi is wisdom. And shin is trust.


So those are five most important virtues in Confucianism. So when he said, I've forgotten benevolence and righteousness, I've forgotten the most important teaching of Confucius. Of course, this is Taoist story, so we don't need to believe purpose is true. So, don't forget, you know, this teaching is improvement or progress according to Taoist. That's the difference between Confucianism and Taoism. Then Confucius said, that's good. Confucius said, that's good to forget those things. But you still haven't got it. So, he's like a Zen master. Another day, the two met again, and Yen Hui, the same disciple, said, I'm improving.


He said, I'm still have some progress. Then, Confucius said, what do you mean by that? The student said, I've forgotten lights and music. Lights is another translation, this ray, right? R-I-T, the forms of doing things. And music. I forgot on lights and music. And Confucius said, that's good, but you still haven't got it. Another day, the two met again, and Yan Hui said, I'm improving. So he's getting better and better. What do you mean by that? And he said, the student said,


I can sit down and forget everything. I can sit down and forget everything. The original expression for this sit down and forget everything is ZA BO. ZA is the same as ZA in the Zen. Sitting. And Bo is forgetting. So I sat and forgot everything. Not only those virtues or forms, but this time when he sat, he forgot everything. Confucius looked very startled and said, What do you mean, sit down and forget everything? Yen Hui said, I smashed up my limbs and body.


I smashed up my limbs and body. That means I'm free from body. Drive out perception and intellect. Cast off form. Do away with understanding. and make myself identical with the great thoroughfare. Do you know that? Nice to meet you. Thoroughfare. Thorough and f-a-r-e. Thoroughfare. What does this mean? Road. The original word is tsu. And it says daitsu. Tsu is like a penetration and reaching. And this is a part of Tom Wright's dharma name.


His dharma name is Dai Tsu. No, yes, Shoyu Dai Tsu was his dharma name. Anyway, this Tsu is used as a translation of English, not English, but a Buddhist term. For example, in January I'm going to study a talk on Shobo Genzo Jin Tsu. Jin Tsu is often translated as divine power. This Tsu and this Tsu is the same Kanji. And, in this case, this too is like a power to penetrate. And it says there are six divine powers, you know, practitioners can attain through practice of meditation.


So, I think, when, you know, Chinese people translate the Sanskrit word, they had some kind of, you know, association with this expression. And they used this word as a translation of Jin Tsu. But in Shobo Genzo Dogen said, these six divine powers are small powers, not great. So this could also be interpreted as a great translating power. And according to the commentary on Chuan Tzu, Dai Tzu is the same as Great Wei or Tao. Anyway, so he said, I smashed up my limbs and body when he was sitting. We don't know what kind of posture, because it doesn't say.


But somehow he sat and smashed limbs and body. That means he was free from his body. Drive out perception and intellect. So he stopped thinking. And cast off form. So he was free from any form. and do away with understanding. He let go of, you know, any understanding he had about those five virtues or Confucius' teachings. And make myself identical with a great thoroughfare. That means great Dao or Way. So he becomes really one with this Dao. This is what I mean by sitting down and forgetting everything, or the bow. I think this expression, the bow, sitting and forgetting, is used in some of the Zen literature.


I don't remember which one, but I think this one is sometimes used. Zen Confucius said, If you are identical with it, with it means with that great Tao, you must have no more likes, but only likes. This means likes and dislikes, or preferences. So, it's not so different from Buddhist teachings. So, when we, he said, when you forget all those things and become one with Tao, or Tao, or way, you are free from preferences, like and dislike. And if you've been transformed, you must have no more constancy. Constancy is Jō.


In Buddhism, this Jō is permanence. That means I think he is free from grasping or his attachment to something which doesn't change. So, you really are a worthy man after all. With your permission, I'd like to become your follower. This is Confucius saying. It's not possible Confucius actually said, I want to be your student to his students. Anyway, this is one of the examples, you know, sitting was kind of his practice or used as a kind of, you know, meditation to improve their spirituality, at least in Taoism. I don't think in Confucianism.


So, this idea of sitting and forgetting, and later Zen Buddhism in China had, I think, a very close connection. They end up saying the Great Way is not difficult when preferences are cast aside. Yeah, that is from Shinjin-me. So, that Great Way and this Great Way might, for Chinese people, not so different thing. But, we need to be careful. What is the sameness and difference? What is the similarity with Buddhist teaching and Taoist teaching? And Dōgen Zenji clearly said, you know, at the time of Dōgen in Song dynasty, there is a kind of idea that Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism are similar, or those are the three legs of one pod.


But Dōgen Zenji clearly negated that idea. So, he didn't like that idea. Then, what is the difference? We have to make it clear. That is one of the points when we study, you know, the history of Chinese Zen Buddhism. What is the sameness or similarity and difference between Zen and Taoist practice? Some people say they are same, completely same. Some people say, I mean some people like Dogen said, no. Anyway, so we can see, you know, even in China before Buddhism was introduced, sitting was practiced.


But when we started to try to find the process of, you know, introduction of Buddhism from India to China, and Chinese civilization, and especially spiritual philosophy and cultural practice, encounter each other and become, influence each other and become something Chinese. That process is very interesting and dynamic and yet very complex. So, it's not so easy to understand. So, in the early stage of Chinese Buddhist history, Chinese people interpret Buddhist teachings using Daoist concept.


That's why, for example, Sanskrit word, bodhi, that means awakening, is translated as Dao. Anuttara Samyak-saṃ, the old translation of Anuttara Samyak-saṃ bodhi is Mūjō-dō. Mu is no, and jo means above or upward. So nothing above, that means supreme or highest way, is old translation of Sanskrit word Anuttara Samyak Sambodhi. And also, the Chinese translation of Bodhicitta, awakening mind, is 道心, this 道, 道心 of mind of Tao.


So, they translate awakening or body with this word Tao. That is not really the same concept. But somehow Chinese people interpret Buddhist teaching of awakening to the, you know, absolute reality. So they thought absolute reality is the same as Tao. And awakening to that reality is also Tao. Sounds like a bouquet. Yeah, so here is another, you know, twist here. But that is one of the necessary process, you know, Chinese people try to understand one religion or teaching made in India. And that process continued about, let's see, 400 years. And around 5th and 6th century,


fifth century, a translator whose name was Kumarajiva came, and he was the first... it said he was the first person, he and his students, Chinese students, were the first group of people, Chinese people, who tried to understand Buddhism with Buddhist concept. Before that, they had no way to understand using Taoist concept and ideas. Please. How did they translate the notion of Nirvana? Nirvana was translated as Metsu. Metsu is distinguished to perishing, ceasing. opposition of shō, shō is arising.


And this metsu is also used, you know, as a name of the third truth within the Four Noble Truths, metsu tai. In this case, truth of secession. And so they understand nirvana as a perishing. And that can interpret perishing or perishing of desires, or delusive desires, or to die. It could mean both. And actually Buddha's death is called nirvana. So, later, they stopped translating Sanskrit word using Daoist concept, Daoist terms.


And they found nirvana is something different. So, they tried not to translate. So, nirvana is translated as nirvana. Maybe I don't need to write the kanji. And not only Nehan, but also Prajna was not translated, but transliterated as a Hanya. Or Hanya in Chinese is something like Panya. That is a transliteration of Prajna. And they define what these Sanskrit words mean. That's how the Chinese people made Buddhist teachings on their own. That happened around the 5th century. Buddhism was first introduced to China in the 1st century, so it took them about 400 or 500 years.


You know, one of the eminent Chinese Buddhist masters, this person, Tendai Chigi, the most important philosopher or master in Chinese Tendai tradition, wrote a text called Makashikan. Makashikan is a Chinese... Maka is also a transliteration. Maha. That means big or great. And Shi is stopping. And Kan is seeing or viewing or observing.


And these words, Shi and Kan, is a translation of Sanskrit words Shamatha and Dipashana. Samatha and Vipassana are two methods of meditation in Indian Buddhism. And this person, Tendai Chi-Gi, or in Chinese pronunciation, Chi-I. Chi-Gi is Japanese. Chi-I is Chinese. And he lived in the 6th century. And he was the most important teacher or philosopher in Tendai tradition. So he lived around the same time with Bodhidharma. And this text, Makashikan, Maha Samatha and Vipashyana, is the most important text or manual of meditation practice.


not only in Tendai school, but also in Chinese Buddhism later. Later than Tendai, Chigi. And this is a kind of a big text. And there is an English translation made by Paul Swanson. who lives in Nagoya in Japan. Anyway, so it's difficult to read this text. But he also, Chi'i, also wrote a shorter version of the same kind of text. And we call it the Shō Shikan. Shō means smaller. Smaller Shikan. This is much shorter. about 30 pages or so, it said, this person, Chi-I's brother was a general, military, but he was sick, and it said his brother was dying.


That time, Chi-I recommended his brother, elder brother, to practice meditation. So for his brother, he kind of made a shorter version of meditation manual. That was Shoshikan. And this Shoshikan became much more popular than Makashikan. And today, scholars think this manual for meditation by Chi Yi, become a text of meditation practice in China, including Zen. About how to meditate, like posture and breathing. You know, Zen people in Zen school didn't, you know,


invent something or add something new. They follow the forms and methods of meditation. But then people kind of interpret Buddhist teachings in a very free way, not like scholars. and they expressed their insight freely using their own expressions. That was a difference between Zen school, Zen tradition, and other teaching schools. So, other meditation techniques, like posture and breathing, and how to control the mind, mainly based on those two texts by Chi Yi.


That is what today's scholars think. So, these two meditation manuals are really important to understand how they actually practiced in Chinese Buddhism, practiced meditation. And, because Dogen, Dogen Zenji, became a monk in Tendai tradition, For Dogen, this Makashikan and Shoshikan are also important texts. Now, I start to talk on Dogen. About Zazen practice. Dogen Zenji wrote so-called Zazengi. manual of Zazen, description of how to practice Zazen, at least four times.


The first one was written when he came back from China to Japan in 1227, right after he received dharma transmission from his teacher, Tendonyojo Zenji. He came back to Japan and in this year, right after he went back to Japan, he wrote Fukanza Zenji. and he rewrote it in 1233. This 1233 is the year he founded his first monastery, Kôshôji. And the name of the era of this year is Tenpuku.


So we call this version, Tenpuku Bon, or Bon means version, Tenpuku version of Kanda Dengi. And this is, you know, written by Dogen himself. And that calligraphy still remains. And the scroll in my office, is Dogen's calligraphy of Kansa Zengi, of this version. Of course, that is a photocopy. It's a real thing. It's a national treasure, stored at Eheiji. So we can read this version today. And third is in 1243.


This is the year Dogen moved from Koshoji to, not Eheiji yet, but through the mountain. Maybe we can say Eheiji. But Eheiji was not built until 1245 or so. This year he wrote Shobo Genzo Zazengi. This is the third Zazengi. And Fukan Zazengi is written in Chinese. But Shobo Genzo Zazengi is written in Japanese. as a part of Kana Shobo Genzo. And fourth, the date is unknown, but another version of Kanza Zengi is included in Eihei Koroku.


Volume 8. And this is the version of Fukanza Zengi we usually read. And there's a little difference between the Tenpuku version, and we call this Rufu Bon. Rufu means circulating. That means popular. Popular version. So we can read both Fukanza Zengi, both two versions of Fukanza Zengi. And scholars study factor difference. And there is a ten year difference between 1233 and 1243. And they try to see, observe the difference. of Dogen's understanding of Zazen by comparing these two versions.


It's kind of interesting. But the first version, written in 1227, was lost. So we don't know what the first version looked like. And there is another description of Zazen in Dogen Zen's writing. It's not Zazengi, but It's included in Bendō-hō. Bendō-hō is a part of Eihe Shingi. And Eihe Shingi is, you know, the book Dōgen's Standard for Zen Community. It's a translation of Eihe Shingi. And Bendo-ho is part of it. And Bendo-ho is a description of how monks practice within the So-do.


So-do is monks' hall, day and night, including sitting. sleeping, eating, all those things. And when he described how monks practice in the monks' hall, he described how to sit. So, there are five kinds of texts. and four of them are available today. So, when we study Dogen's teaching about how to do Zazen, we study those four texts. Please. Isn't there a text called the Zazen Shin? Zazen Shin is not about how to practice, but the meaning of practice. So, it's not so much a meaning, it's not giving instructions, It's not about how to practice, but how to understand what this Dazen practice is.


So, it's different. And, I don't know, I don't remember when, but I translated all those four Dazen Gis. If you are interested, you can make a photocopy of these four zazengis. And those four zazengis are based on Chinese zazengi, included in Zen Ren Shin Gi. This kanji is pronounced as En.


But we pronounce Zen and En becomes Zen-Nen. It's like a liaison. So we call this Zen-Nen-Shin-Gi. Shin-Gi is pure standard. Zen and En is like a garden. Zen-Nen means Zen Monastery. And this pure standard is the regulations of the monasteries. And this regulation was compiled in 1103, so about 100 years before Dogen's birth. And part of this Zen Rinshin-gi is the Zen-gi. written by one Chinese master whose name was Choro Sosaku.


And... And I also made a translation of this Chinese Dazengi. And this Dazengi is still used in Rinzai school. So, in Rinzai, they still use practice based on this Dazengi. But somehow Dogen Zenji didn't like this Dazengi. There is a short, very short writings of Dogen. about why he composed zazengi, his own zazengi. And he said, in this Chinese zazengi made by Sōsaku, there's some distortion according to Dōgen. That's why he wrote his own zazengi.


But when we compare Dogen's four texts about zazen and this one, the Chinese zazengi, about the posture and breathing, there is no difference. But the beginning and end in Fukuan zazengi, for example, Dogen said, the way is perfect and complete. That kind of, you know, his understanding of what Zazen is, is very different from Sosaku's Zazen-gi in Zen Nenshin-gi. So it's also interesting to understand Dogen's understanding of the meaning of Zazen practice. What is the difference between Chinese and Dogen's? So, sometimes, in the future, if I have a chance, I'd like to study those five zazengi, you know, compare those five zazengi and try to understand what is Dogen's point, what is the difference.


And the scholars think the form of zazen, or like a posture and breathing and those things in this Chinese zazen is not so different from Tendai's shoushikan, or Tendai's description of how to sit. So, about the posture and breathing and those things, they didn't change so much. But, one of the might be important difference between Tendai's Zazen-gi or meditation manual and Zen meditation, including this Chinese Zazen-gi, is in Zen, From China, we keep our eyes open.


In Tendai, it says they close their eyes. And the significance of this opening and closing is a very subtle point, but scholars discuss why this change happened. So, that is one of the points, you know, interesting points we study these texts. Anyway, I don't think this is the time to study Dogen and Tengai and Chinese Zazengi. So, I just introduce this kind of information as an introduction to read Uchiyama-roshi's description of Zazengi. So I leave the hard copy of my translation of Four Zazengi.


If you are interested, please, could you make a photocopy? I leave it on this table. OK, now I start to read this text. Page 41. The reality of Zazen. How to do Zazen. I think all of you are already familiar with how to sit, so I just read. And if I have something to comment, I say, I talk. And if you have some questions, please give me. Page 41. The meaning of Zazen must rest stably on the act of Zazen itself. So, the question of how to do Zazen is essential.


First of all, the room where you do Zazen should be as quiet as possible. I think we don't need to argue about this. Of course, it's really better to sit in a quiet place. It's really difficult to sit in a noisy place. So, quiet place is best. It should be neither too light nor too dark. And it should be warm in the winter and cool in the summer. And this is also desirable, but sometimes it's not available. At Antaiji, you know, the zendo was not so good building. Antaiji was founded by... the founder of Antaiji was Oka Sotan Roshi.


they found Antaiji. That was the beginning of the 20th century. So, Antaiji was really kind of a new temple, and Antaiji was established for the students who graduated from Komazawa University and wanted to study Dogen continuously. not like a school, but like a monastery. So, Antaiji was built as a studying monastery, study monastery. The idea came from one layperson who was a successful businessman. Probably, he used to be a monk, but he quit to be a monk and became a businessman and became a successful person. So, he wanted to use some of his property, wealth, for Dharma.


So, he made a donation to build a temple for study. Of course, one person made the donation to build that temple. So, it's not too much money. So, in order to build the temple buildings, they moved the old temple buildings, probably in Nara, and they disassembled the old buildings and moved and assembled again. So the temple was new, but the building was not so new. And when I first sat five days session there, that was after maybe about 50 years after it was rebuilt on that location. So the building was not so


in a good shape. Between the walls and pillars there is a space. And so we had a very good air circulation. That means in the winter it's very cold. The temperature was not so different from us. And it could be, I don't know, maybe in Fahrenheit, like a little bit below freezing, so something like 28 or 5 or 8 in centigrade, like minus 5. So it could be very cold. And in the beginning, right after World War II, Uchiyama Roshi and some of his Dharma brothers moved to Antaish.


They didn't have money at all. So, in order to prevent the air coming in, Uchiyama Roshi made paper curtains using, you know, rice bags that were free from a rice shop. And that paper curtain was still used when I first visited there. That was 1969. And at that time they already had a small kerosene stove. So there was some heating, but it didn't make so much change. So it was really cold. So, you know, it's desirable to have cool in the summer and warm in the winter. But if we think, unless we have such a place, we cannot practice, then we may have no time to practice.


So sometimes we need a determination. Whether it's cold or hot, we just sit. But, you know, if it's available, it's important to, you know, make as cool as possible in the summer and as warm as possible in the winter. Kill yourself with heat and cold, yeah. That is traditional attitude. But that is a koan. But as a reality, even in the traditional monasteries, in the monks' hall, in the summer, you know, monks' hall has kind of a, what do you call, two walls. And this space is used as a walking meditation.


And people... This is called Night Town. And this is called Gaitan. Here is another seat. This is called Gaitan. And here is an entrance. And monks in the monk's hall sit on this platform. And here is Manjushri. And in the summer, at the entrance, both front and back entrance, in the summer they hang like a bamboo curtain. in order to allow the air to come and go. And in the winter they put a thick closed curtain in order not to allow the wind to come in. And even at the time of Dogen, according to Ehei Shingi, or Bendo Ho, they put


what they call a fireplace, in which they burned charcoal. So, it's not very warm, but they had certain, you know, things to, certain effort to make it warm. So, it should be warm in the winter and cool in the summer. Care should be taken not to allow wind or smoke in the room. So, both this wall and the inner walls, there are windows to get some light from outside.


So, there is no direct sunlight in the zendō. There are two layers of windows. So, it must be better than Antaiji's zendō. You know, warm air doesn't go out and cold air doesn't come in. And it's a little bit cooler than outside in the summer. That's how they try to make it cool in the summer and warm in the winter. And not too dark and not too bright. And care should be taken not to allow wind or smoke in the room. While the room itself should be kept neat and clean. So monks clean the monks hall and of course the Buddha hall every day.


In that tradition we still do here. after, you know, a dozen we clean up. In other words, try to create a settled and peaceful environment where you can continue to sit on a regular basis. So, to create a peaceful and clean and quiet Warm in the summer, in the winter, cool in the summer place is desirable and we need to take care of the place we sit. Because, you know, when we sit, our five skandhas and the world, or the space, is really one thing.


To take care of zendo is to take care of our body and mind. And when we sit, this zendo sits together with us. You know, this is not simply a space I can, we can use to practice my Sazen, but me and we and this space practice together. That is the basic idea. If possible, it is also good to enshrine Buddha statues offer flowers and burn incense. In the case of monk's hall, you know, this one, Manjushri is enshrined in the center. And, you know, flower, candle, and incense is offered. Also water is offered.


Sometimes not Manjushri, but his name. No, the first monk who understood Buddha's teachings. No, among the five monks in Japan. Yeah. Not Shariputra. Shariputra became Buddha's disciple later, after those five monks. What's his name? Kandana. Kandana, yeah. In Japanese, Kyo Chin Nyo. He's enshrined as a, you know, first, you know, this is a monk's hold, so first Buddhist monk who understood Dogen, not Dogen, but Buddha's teaching. But here Dogen, not Dogen, but Uchamuro, he's writing for not only the people who practice in the monastery, so this is written for lay people, so if they want to have their own sitting space at home, he's saying better to enshrine, you know, it doesn't need to be Manjushri or Kyojin-nyo.


Any Buddha statue is fine. but Enshirain said, a Buddha statue represents the tranquility of the Zen and is an artistic expression of the compassion and wisdom of the Zen. This way, we create an atmosphere That supports our doings then. So not only our five skandhas sitting, but this space and the neatness of the space, and air circulation, and Buddha statues and flowers from somewhere else, from nature, and incense and all those things support our practice and actually sit with us.


This way we create an atmosphere that supports our doing Zazen. So the important point is we sit together with all beings. Of course, things in the Zen-do, other people in the Zen-do, and also not only things and people in the Zen-do, or monks whole, but also all beings in the entire universe supporting our practice, and we practice together all of them. So, we should always take good care of the environment that supports our Zazen. paying respect to the place where we sit, and bowing when entering the zendo or sitting hall. So, in order to show or express our gratitude and respect to that space, when we enter the zendo, we bow, we make, you know, bow, standing bow with gassho.


25, maybe I can read one more paragraph. To complete your arrangement, lay down a large flat cushion, a zabuton or zaniku, that is the, you know, the flat cushion or mat we use In Japan, we call it zaniku. And zabuton is a much smaller one. We commonly use, not only in the Buddhist temples, but in our common family houses, we use much smaller, same kind of mat. We call it zabuton. And the big one used in the temple or monastery for zazen is called zaniku. And actually, futon, not zabuton, but futon means in Dogens and Keizans writing, futon means zafu.


Zafu is... And futon is this fu and ton. and all together read zabu-ton. So zabu-ton actually means zafu, the round cushion, not a flat cushion. Ton means something round. So here is some confusion. But it's not a serious, important, serious confusion. So we call this zabu-ton. That is fine. And this fu is the name of a certain plant. The fabric from that plant is used for making futon.


Before we had cotton. And I don't know the English name for this plant. I see some of those plants, I think, even in Bloomington. The top is something like this, and it's dark brown. Cattails? Cattails. Do you use them? Yeah. They usually grow in a wet place. Do you use this plant for making, like, So for the stuffing or for the fabric? Stuffing. Oh, I made some with cattails once. They got flat faster than others. In the fall or winter, this part becomes like cotton. They used this plant in China and in Japan also, ancient times. Now we all use cotton.


Is that the plant that they No, it's different. Different plant. I think that is ashi. Ashi or yoshi. And this is... Japanese name of this plant is gamma. And Chinese pronunciation is fu. So, futon, now used in this country. came from this futon. So first we put the square futon, or zaniku, and put the round cushion on it.


But at certain monasteries, like Zuyoji, they I'm not sure right now, but they didn't use Javiton in the sword war. Because they thought tatami is Javiton. Tatami. There is tatami on the platform. And they thought tatami is Javiton. So they didn't use this square mat. I'm not sure right now. Anyway, so sit down on top of that, on top of zabuton or zaniku. Place a zafu around a firm cushion. Sit down on the zafu facing a wall and fold your legs.


Sit on the front part of the zafu, not squarely on the middle of it. I think you understand. I don't need to explain this. A few people can cross both legs by putting the right foot on the left thigh, and the left foot on the right thigh, in the very stable classic full lotus posture, see figure 4. I think you know this. But it is not possible for most people. This, you know, a few people can, but it's not possible for more people. is addition by Jisho, the editor. Uchiyama didn't write this. You may be able to place your left foot on your right thigh or your right foot on your left leg. This is called the half lotus position, see figure 5.


In any of the zazengi made in China or Japan, only full lotus position or kekkafuza and half lotus or hankafuza is described. No other method of sitting is there. Your knees should be resting firmly on the Zabuton. This way, the weight of the upper part of the body can be distributed stably on three points. Both knees on the Zabuton and the buttock on the Zaf. So this is an important point to make our sitting stable to support the weight of the upper part of our body on three points. points, both knees and buttock.


Buttock is on the center of Zanikufu and knees are on the Zabuton. So this becomes like a tripod. This is important to make our Zazen stable. Let me read one more sentence. This is about another way of sitting. And in the Uchiyama Roshi's original, this paragraph is not there. So, this is Jisho's addition. If you cannot place one foot on the other leg, You can sit cross-legged with both legs and feet resting on the Zabton in the posture known as Burmese, see figure 6.


So both legs are on the Zabton, not on the thigh. If your hips or knees do not permit sitting cross-legged, You can sit in a kneeling position, known as Seiza, and rest your buttocks on a low bench or on a duff set on end. See figure 7. Next page. You can also do the Zen sitting in a chair. This is more difficult because it is harder to settle into a stable upright posture on a chair. Sit with your knees slightly lower than your hips, your feet planted on the floor or on a cushion if necessary.


You may find it helpful to use a cushion for lower back support. but the upper back should sit freely upright if at all possible. So, Jisho added these three additional ways of sitting. Jisho's teacher was Tozen Akiyama. He is a friend of mine, and when he read this version of Opening the Hand of Thought, he asked me, is this okay? I mean, this way of sitting is okay, but to add this, you know, even Uchanga Roshi never, I think, never seen, never done, and never seen, even never know such way of sitting as Zazen practice. to add his book as a part of, you know, his writings.


I mean, his opinion is, it's okay to give that information in this book because it, you know, allows all, I think, almost all Zen centers to sit in that way. So it's okay to give this, include this information about sitting in Burmese or Caesar or using a meditation bench or chair. And we also sit. Even I sometimes sit on the chair. These days, lately, I have to sit in Burmese when I have pain on my knees. So it's okay, but is it okay to put these things as Uchamaru's writing or not, was his question. And I didn't know. this thing is added as a, you know, main part of the book until this was published.


So I'm still, this is still a question for me. Not as a practice, but as a way to make a book. Yeah, it could have been like an appendix. Appendix or a footnote or something like that. Actually, when I was at Tantai-ji, I was in charge of zendo and zaren practice, and also at that time I was already studying English. And one time there was a visitor, I'm not sure if he was American or not, But he came and said, I wanted to practice Zazen, but I couldn't sit on the floor. Is it possible to sit on the chair? At that time I had completely no idea sitting on the chair can be Zazen.


And only, we had only one chair at Bantaiji. That chair was used for Uchiyama Roshi when he gave lectures. So, I told that person, you know, we cannot sit on the chair in the zendo. And I said, even we don't have chairs, any chair. And so that person couldn't practice Tantaiji. And at that time the person said to me, that, you will have to deal with this. This means people who cannot sit in half lotus or full lotus position. To me, until I came to this country, to practice doesn't mean to practice to sit in the way Dogen Zenji described in Fukanza Dengi. No other method of sitting is Zazen.


To me, you know, that is very clear, and I was kind of stupefied about that point. Like the person from Israel. Zazen is sitting in full lotus or half lotus. That's it. But, as the person, that visitor said, I have to deal with it, not for other people, but for myself. Now I cannot sit in full lotus. And now I have to sometimes sit in bar mitzvah. How... If... Which is better, no? If I cannot sit in full lotus or half lotus, I have to quit, or I continue to sit in other ways. You know, that is kind of a koan to me, the last several years. There's also the difficulty sometimes in a group where, you know, a person with a handicap... Yeah, it's a kind of discrimination or rejection of those


If we say, if you cannot sit full lotus or half lotus, you cannot sit here, then... We don't have so many people. I don't think it's a good idea. But of course, you know, as a string practice, you know, full lotus is most stable. And half lotus is a little less stable. Because when we sit half lotus, you know, only this one side is put on another side. So even a little bit, a part of our body leans this way or that way. So I recommend people, if we sit half lotus, change the legs each. each period. If they sit a lot, like a session, if they sit only once a week, that's fine, that's OK. But if they want to sit a lot, in half lotus, it's better to change right, arm, left, legs, not exactly each period, but often, in order to keep our spine straight.


If we sit that much, like 5 days session every month, at least 10 times a year for 20 years, if we want to sit in that amount of time, we must be really careful about our posture. Otherwise, we injure our spine. Please. Another kind of problem that I've noticed sometimes with beginners and getting instructed, sometimes the beginner will just take the easiest posture and never really advance. They never try to do a somewhat harder posture. Right. So it's kind of important to, you know, encourage people to sit, if it's possible, even little by little, push a little bit, you know, to sit half-rotas or full-rotas. Yeah, that's another problem.


So clinging to half-rotas or full-rotas is a problem. But to avoid them is also a problem. Well, I think it's quarter to eleven. This is a good place to stop. Any questions? Please. In the first version, the first translation, is that the text straight from the church without any additions? Not 100%. Me and Tom Wright, and this was also edited by Disho Warner. There might be some changes, but not so many like this version. I mean, I'll be reading this, because I've read this a number of times already.


It's like there's a lot of little edits. Right. I think he, I mean she, Jisho Warner, works a lot. And in terms of readability, it's improved. But I find some places, some examples, that meaning is changed, or twisted, or some meaning is lost. So, whatever we do, some people don't like it. So, I don't complain against Jisho, but I also want to keep these two versions together. And I also try to read the original Japanese version. And another thing is, you know, this is not the first translation. This is the second.


Actually, the original translation, the first translation was published in 1973, much earlier than this one. That version was entitled, like, Approach to Zen. and translated by Steve Yenick. He was one of the American practitioners who can read and speak fluently, Japanese fluently, and he was the main person to make the first translation. But when I was in Massachusetts, at Valley's End, we used that version. But when I went back to Kyoto, and Uchiyama-nochi asked me and Tomurai to work on translation together, first thing that we wanted is to make another new translation of this book.


Because we didn't think that first translation was good enough. OK? Whenever there's meditation instruction in sutras, in the Buddha, describing some meditation, it always says, first it says to be secluded by yourself, or B, and then also it says B, go to a foot of a tree or a rock, sometimes A, or sometimes a grass cut, but more often a tree. Do you think these changes are important? Well, in India, I think even today in Theravada traditions, each monk has their own hut or cell, small cabin.


And in the morning, since the time of Buddha, they sat by themselves. They didn't have like a zendo. for, you know, all the members of the community to sit together. Probably when Buddha gave a Dharma talk, they get together, because Buddha was sitting, all those people were sitting, but they listened to Buddha's teaching. But I think in India they didn't meditate together. And also, some Buddhist monks, like Mahakasyapa, didn't like to live in a monastery. Mahakasyapa continued to live in the forest. And that tradition continues still today. In Thailand, they have a forest tradition.


And they continue to practice meditation in that way. And some people, at the time of Buddha, practiced meditation in a graveyard where dead bodies were there. They watched the process of decaying of the body to see the impermanence and to be free from attachment to our own body. So, it seems in India it was important. Not important, but that was the way they practiced meditation. Practiced in nature, like sitting in front of trees, as Buddha did. Or sitting in the deep forest, or facing the rock, or those places.


And in the beginning, in China also, people said sitting outside is better or important. But, not only in Zen, but also in Tendai tradition, it seems they had Zendo. and they had a room or a hall for the monks in the community to practice Dazen together. So, it started in China. So, then, monasteries in China had this kind of monk's hall. stay in that hall 24 hours together with other monks. I was just wondering if that would be a reflection of the Mahayana attitude, more of a social aspect. It might be so.


That is one of the kind of reasons they started to practice in a monk's hall. And Dogen Zenji said it is important to sit together with other monks. And when it's time to sleep, they have to sleep. So do things together with all the assembly is important in Dogen's tradition. In Rinzai tradition, like during Rohatsu Sesshin, the monks or practitioners were encouraged to sit outside after the evening Zazen is done. Even in the winter, Rohatsu Sesshin sat outside as long as they wished. And it said, until the elders or seniors went to bed.


You know, junior monks couldn't go to bed. So, there is a different tradition. But in the case of Dogen Zenji's tradition, we understand it's important to sit together with other monks in the Sōdō or Zendō. Okay? So what does yā mean? We call that yāzā. Yāzā literally means, yā means evening or night. Zā is sitting. Okay. Okay. Thank you.