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Good morning, everyone. Before we start to read Dogen Zenji's Shobo Genzo Shoho Jisso, I'd like to introduce a little more information about this expression and also a teaching about this expression. I think that helps our understanding of what Dogen wants to say in this writing. The expression Shoho Jisso, as I said yesterday, refers to the reality or truth of each and every being's is. So, Shoho is beings, and Jisso is like...


Shoho is beings or dharma, and Jisso is dharma-ta, something that makes dharma as dharma. It's like a human and humanity, or Buddha and Buddha-ta or Buddha-nature. So, Jisso is something abstract, we cannot see, and universal, you know, humanity is shared by all human beings. Each one of us are different as a complete being, but humanity is all-pervading. All human beings share humanity. That is the difference between beings or dharma and dharma-ta. Thank you. This Dogen's writing, Shoho Jisso,


is his comment basically on the expression from the Lotus Sutra. And this Lotus Sutra is also translated by Kumāra Jīva, the person who translated Nagarjuna's Majamika Kārikā. And so, Kumāra Jīva's translation work was very important to kind of create the Chinese Buddhist philosophy. Anyway, this expression, Dogen quotes in his Shoho Jisso, is appeared in the second chapter of the Lotus Sutra. The title is, in the translation I used,


is called tactfulness, or tactfulness. Another translation is skillful means. Skillful means or experienced means. The original Sanskrit word is upāya. This is the second chapter of the Lotus Sutra. In the first chapter of the Lotus Sutra, Buddha didn't say anything. He was sitting in meditation called Muryo Gisho Zanmai, the samādhi of something like infinite meanings. And Buddha emitted the light and illuminated the entire dharma world. And people expected that Buddha was going to expound very profound and absolute dharma.


That is the end of the first chapter. And in this second chapter, Buddha started to talk. It started something like this. This is the very beginning of the second chapter. He said, At that time, the world-honored one, rising quietly and clearly from contemplation, this contemplation samādhi, addressed Shariputra. So Buddha talked to Shariputra. The wisdom of Buddha is very profound and infinite. That is the first thing he said. The wisdom of Buddha is very profound and infinite.


Their wisdom, in this translation, it says wisdom school. But I don't know what this school means. The original word is a mon. Mon means gate. That's the gate of wisdom. That means Buddha's teachings about Buddha's wisdom is difficult to understand and difficult to enter so that the Śrīlavakas and the Pratyekabuddhas cannot apprehend it. Buddha is talking to Shariputra and he is a Śrīlavaka. That means my understanding, my wisdom is too difficult for you. So you cannot understand it. And Buddha said, therefore,


because the Buddhas have been in fellowship with countless hundred thousand myriad courtesies of Buddhas, you know, Buddhas practiced with many numberless Buddhas in the past lives, perfectly practicing the infinite law, law is Dharma, infinite Dharma of all Buddhas, boldly and zealously advancing and making their fame universally known, perfecting the very profound unprecedented Dharma, and preaching as opportunity served, its meaning so difficult to understand. So Buddha has been expanding the absolute Dharma,


which is very difficult to understand. Then, Shariputra, ever since I became Buddha, with various reasonings and various parables, I have widely discoursed and taught, and by countless thoughtful methods or skillful means, have led living beings, causing them to leave all attachments. So, because the reality Buddha awakened to, and Buddha's wisdom itself is very difficult to understand, so Buddha has been teaching using parables and also many different kinds of skillful means.


He never taught the reality itself. He taught about reality using some skillful means. And the Lotus Sutra wanted to say is, now he is ready to show the reality itself, without using the tactful means. Fair four. Because the Tathāgata is altogether perfect in his tactfulness and parameter of wisdom. Shariputra, the wisdom of the Tathāgata, is broad and great, profound and far-reaching. His mind is infinite. His expositions are unimpeded.


His powers, his fearlessness, his meditation, his emancipations, his contemplations have enabled him to enter into the boundless realness and to accomplish all the unprecedented dharma. So, basically, Buddha is praising himself. Shariputra, the Tathāgata, is also to discriminate everything, preach the laws or dharmas skillfully, use gentle words, and cheer the heart of all. Shariputra, essentially speaking, the Buddha has altogether fulfilled the infinite, boundless, unprecedented dharma.


And, next he says, he said, Enough, Shariputra, there is no need to say any more. So, Buddha, you know, reject to say any more. You know, he started to talk about this absolute dharma, but Buddha said, Buddha has hesitation, because it's too difficult for Shravakas. Because the law which the Buddha has perfected is the chief unprecedented dharma, or law, and difficult to understand. I think this hesitation of preaching or expanding came from the Buddha's hesitation of teaching after his attaining awakening. He stayed under the Bodhi tree for three weeks,


and he had hesitation to stand up from the seat and to teach, because the reality or truth he awakened to is too difficult to understand for many living beings. And the Indian god asked Buddha to start to teach, and Buddha rejected twice, and the third time he accepted. And here in the Lotus Sutra, instead of the Indian god, Shariputra is asking Buddha to expand the dharma, and Buddha rejected twice, and the third time he started to talk. So, this part of the Lotus Sutra


and the beginning of Buddha's teaching after Buddha stood up from his sitting under the Bodhi tree and started to teach, it has some connection. Anyway, before he started to talk about this dharma, he said, Only a Buddha, together with a Buddha, can fathom the reality of all existence. This reality of all existence is Shobho Jitso. Shobho Jitso


And Dogenzen picked up this expression, Shobho Jitso, as a title of Shobho Genzo, from this place of the Lotus Sutra. But according to the modern scholars, in the original Sanskrit, in this place, there is no Sanskrit word for Shobho Jitso. So this is kind of a Kumara Jiva's creativity. He put this expression, Shobho Jitso, in here. So, only a Buddha, together with a Buddha, can fathom the reality of all existence. My translation is true reality. I put true reality of all beings. I'm not sure true reality makes sense or not.


It's kind of redundant. But I want to use two words, Jitso and So, because of Dogen's writings. And that is to say, this reality of all beings is, that is to say, all existence or all beings has such a form, such a nature, such an embodiment, such a potency, such a function, such a primary cause, such a secondary cause, such an effect, such a recompense, and such a complete fundamental whole. Here, the Lotus Sutra lists up ten suchnesses.


And that is Dogen quotes in Shobho Genzo. These ten suchnesses are really important in, especially, Chinese Tendai teachings I'm going to introduce later. But these ten suchnesses does not also exist in the original Sanskrit Lotus Sutra. So this is also, these ten suchnesses is also addition by Kumāra Jīva. So Kumāra Jīva was a very creative translator. Creative translation and honest or direct translation is sometimes opposite, contradicted. But if Kumāra Jīva didn't translate the Lotus Sutra in this way, Chinese Tendai teaching


mainly established by Tendai Chi'i and also Dogen, Dogen's Shobho Jisto doesn't exist. So, we... Kumāra Jīva is a really important person to understand, you know, Tendai teaching, Chinese Tendai teaching and Dogen's teaching. Those ten suchnesses is, let me first read in kanji. So, sho, tai, riki, sa, in, nen, ka, ho,


and honmatsukukyoto, honmatsukukyoto. Pronunciation is so, sho, tai, riki, sa, in, nen, or in, ka, ho, and honmatsukukyoto. In this translation, so is form, sho is nature,


and tai is embodiment. Riki is potency. Sa is function. In is cause. In this translation, this is a primary cause. Primary cause. And in is a secondary cause. And eighth one is


effect. And recompense. Recompense. And tenth, final one is a complete, a complete fundamental whole. Maybe I don't need to write it. Whole. Yeah, W-H-O-L-E, whole. This means each and every being. As a reality of each and every being, there are ten suchness. These are called suchness, or thusness, or nyoze in Japanese. So, it said,


nyoze sou, nyoze shou, nyoze tai, nyoze riki, nyoze sa, nyoze in, nyoze en, nyoze ka, and nyoze ho. So, these are called ten suchness. And each and every being has these ten aspects. That is what this Lota Sutra, translated by Kumāra Jīva, is saying. And this is shoho jisso. And Lota Sutra doesn't explain what this means. Just list up. Please. Number nine is recompense. Recompense. Another translation is retribution. How much is kukyo tō?


I'll explain later what this means. So, the Lota Sutra doesn't explain what this means, but my understanding is these ten suchness. Within these ten suchness, these first five refer to the uniqueness of each being, or the feature or characteristic or particularity of each being. Each being has its own unique form, and unique nature, and unique body. In this case, form means something we can see. So, looking, appearances. And nature is each person has different personality, in the case of human beings. And dog has dog nature.


Cat has cat nature. And each thing has its own nature. And here it says embodiment, but I think this is just a body. Each thing has its body or substance. Actually, in the Buddhist philosophy, there is no substance as a fixed entity, but as a tentative being, we have some substance or body. And each being has its own unique potency, or I translate energy, power. Some energy. Each one of all beings has its own power, or energy, or potency.


And function, some work. Even the mountain is working. Or the blackboard is working. And I'm working. Everything is working. So each and every being has its own unique features. And next four, I think, shows that each and every unique individual being cannot exist without relation with others. And six and eight, yin and ka, six and eight, effect or result, or cause and result, is a relationship within time.


When, for example, a seed of a tree is planted, as a result, the tree grows and blooms flowers and bears fruits. That is cause and result. So each and everything is within the relationship between cause and result. You know, a seed is a result of previous life. And this seed is a cause of future life. So each and everything is a result of something previous. And cause of something in the future. So everything has connection with the past and with the future.


This is what cause and result, I think, means. So without causality, the sequence of cause and effect, nothing can exist. And I think seventh and ninth, this translation says secondary cause, but usually this is translated as conditions. Pardon me? Conditions. And how is it compensated or retributed? That is, for example, you know, even if a seed of some certain plant is planted on the soil,


if there's certain condition helps this seed to sprout and grow, so the seed can't, you know, live. All the conditions that help a seed to sprout and grow is in conditions such as a seed needs humidity and certain temperature and sunbeam. Without all those conditions, seeds cannot sprout. If a seed is, you know, put on the table, it doesn't sprout. And the seed is, you know, cooked by human beings,


it cannot sprout and grow. So all those conditions that help a seed to grow is the relationship between this seed and all other beings. And not only the conditions positively or actively help or directly help a seed to grow, such as humidity and temperature, things or the fact that, for example, a bird doesn't come to pick up the seed to eat. That fact something didn't happen is part of the conditions. So negative things didn't happen


is also a condition that helps a seed to sprout and grow. So not only things happening to help a seed grow, but also things didn't happen is also a condition for a seed to grow. That means everything within this universe is a condition for a seed to grow. Even, you know, a certain distance between sun and earth. If the distance is too little more closer than the earth is much hotter, then certain seeds cannot grow, or even we may cannot live. So there's a certain distance between sun and earth. These are one of the conditions


when small tiny seeds can sprout and grow and produce something. So actually everything is a condition for everything. Everything is connected with everything other conditions. And when the seed sprouts and the plant continues to grow, as a result, you know, the tree blooms flowers. This is a result of this cause. But this result is not only for... only the result or effect of this seed, living activity of this seed.


But when a flower blooms, somehow it has its influence from others. You know, when we see, especially for us Japanese, when we see cherry blossom blooms in the spring, we feel happy. So that is not the purpose of a seed of... I don't know cherry blossom, cherry tree has seed or not. But, you know, that is not the purpose for a cherry tree to make us happy. But somehow it has effect that we become happy. Or because of, you know, many flowers bloom, we can offer the flower to the Buddha. You know, this is not the reason the flowers bloom, the plant living. But somehow when a plant blooms flowers,


it helps us to practice. And also, when there are fruits, you know, animals or birds can eat the fruits. And the fruit eaten by the bird can be carried somewhere else and the seed in the next generation can grow somewhere else. So, and also, as Ryokan wrote in his poem, when a flower blooms, you know, what is that? Butterfly. Butterfly visits the flower. And even though flower doesn't invite butterfly, somehow butterfly visits the flower.


And butterfly and flower help each other. Butterfly does something for the flower. And flower, you know, offers honey or nectar. So somehow, as a result, also, you know, has connection with all other things in the universe. I think that is what this retribution or recompense means. In the case of Buddhism, this of course means seed is arousing body-mind. This is the starting point of our practice. And we study and practice and we grow and become mature. And when we mature to a certain degree, you know, we can... In the beginning, we are helped by many things.


We need support from all beings, actually. Not only teachers or Buddhist books and also the Sangha. Those are the conditions we can practice. And we become mature, grow and mature as Buddha's children. And when we become mature to a certain degree, we can offer something to other people as a support or help of other people's practice, as a co-practitioner or as a teacher. And ultimately, when Bodhisattva becomes a Buddha, this is not the end of this process. When Bodhisattva becomes a Buddha, you know, Buddha needs to teach as a Buddha's practice,


to teach all other beings. So, in the beginning or in the process, we are helped by all beings. And when we become matured, we can also support others. So, this recompense means a fruit that has something to offer to other beings. Please. I don't understand the difference between eight and nine, the results. The result is like a... When we study something to become a teacher, we study and we master something, we attain certain knowledge and understanding. That is the result of study. And when we master a certain degree,


we get a license to teach. Become a teacher. That is to get certain understanding, knowledge, and skill is a result. And become a teacher is a recompense, a retribution of the result. So, result is a connection within this person. I didn't know in the beginning, but by studying something, now I understand this. And when I understand this, you know, I can teach. So, this is a... Inga is a connection within me, within time. And en and ho is a connection with me and other beings. So, when we attain awakening, that becomes Buddha.


That means Buddha needs to teach. I think that is ka and ho. Please. Before saying this part, you were saying number six, seven, eight, nine, something they had in common, but I couldn't catch what you said. Six, seven, eight, nine... I said these four is a relation with others. These first five is a uniqueness of each being. And the next four is a relationship with others. Relationship, relation, relationship. Or any being cannot exist without relationship with others. So, this is my understanding of these nine suchness. Please.


Number one, can you say more about that? Form. Form. Three. Three is body. Difference between form and body. Form is appearance-looking. You know, each one of us has a human body, but looks different. Right? That is appearance-looking form. Something we can see. Okay? And number ten. This hon is beginning, and mats is end. Hon, beginning, means number one, and mats means number nine. That means from number one to number nine.


Kyo means ultimately, and to means equal. One and equal, or one and same. That means these nine is not nine independent items, but these nine is one thing as a whole. Does it make sense? That means these nine is not different part of one being, one existence, one thing, but these are just one thing. Everything has these nine aspects, and these nine are not separate from each other.


This is one thing. That is what Honmatsu Kukyo-to, in this translation, said. Their consistence, complete fundamental whole, another translation is, their consistency from beginning to end. And another one is, absolute identity of their beginning and end. Absolute identity. So actually these nine are one thing. This is my understanding of this teaching in the Lotus Sutra about the reality of all beings. That is, each and every being has its own uniqueness, unique form, nature, body, energy, and function.


And yet each unique being, we are unique beings, each one of us is a unique being, and yet this unique being cannot exist without relationship or support with others. So this is, just a moment, this shows two sides of interdependent origination. One is each and everything is connected with everything. We are like a knot of the net. This is the Indra's net. Everything is connected with everything. So each knot looks like independent being, individual being. We don't see this thread. This thread is transparent. So we don't see that thread.


So we think each and every knot or being are independent and individual and unique. And that is true. And yet, without relation with all other beings, this cannot exist. In that sense, each being as individual is empty. No self-nature. Without connection or relation with others, knot doesn't really exist. And yet each knot has its own unique form, nature, body, energy and function. So this shows two sides of reality of all beings. One is uniqueness of each being. Another is connection with all other beings within this network of interdependent origination.


Please. Could you say a little bit more about Nyoze? Nyoze. Suchness. So, for example, you just described it and you didn't use the phrase such. But in the translation, it's such a form, such a nature, such a body, etc. Yeah. What does that add to it? Okay. Okay. Can I... Actually, this word, Nyoze, means particularity and beyond particularity, both. This is kind of an interpretation in Tendai tradition and also interpretation of Dogen by Soto Zen masters.


Nyoze has two sides, Nyo and Ze. Nyo literally means like. Ze is this. Like this. This means this particular thing. And Nyo is this is not really this. Something like this. You know, it is like in Zazenshin, Dogen Zen says, Bird is flying like a bird. It's not really a bird, but it's like a bird. It's like this. When he says like a bird, that's Nyo? He uses Nyo? Yeah, this word. So Nyo is like, something like, and this.


That means, you know, each and everything, each and every particular thing is not necessarily this thing. You know, Tsurukiroshi said, not necessarily, or not always so. So he said, not one, not two. Right. That is another expression of emptiness. Not one, not two, or not u, not mu. Anyway, this Nyoze is the word used as a translation of thusness. Not a translation of thusness, but a translation of tatata. Tatata is, it's like this.


And English translation is thusness. So tatata, Nyoze, and thusness is one thing. So, in that case, Nyo and Ze is kind of, how can I say, contradicted each other. And yet, Nyoze is one thing. So, this is, well, I'm going to talk on this later. There are three things in here. One is Nyo, another is Ze, and the third is Nyoze as one thing. You know, in the Nagarjuna's teachings, there are two truths. Absolute truth and conventional or relative truth.


Well, I have to say it a little later. This absolute truth and relative truth is one truth. And in Tendai's teachings, these three, instead of two truths, Tendai, especially Chi'i, mentions three truths. Santai. Three truths. And those three truths are Ku, Ke, and Chu. Ku is emptiness. And Ke is, what is Ke?


Ke. Ke is expedient or tentative. What is the noun for tentative or expedient? Anyway, Chu is middle. Chu. This means, instead of... Ku is considered to be the absolute truth in Nagarjuna's teachings. And Ke is relative truth. Actually, these three truths came out of Nagarjuna's Mahayamika Karika. And it said, everything caused by causes and conditions is empty.


Therefore, it is tentative being. It doesn't really exist. Provisional being. Provisional. Provision. So it's there, but it's not there. And this is, Nagarjuna said, everything coming and going within causes and conditions is empty. Therefore, it's provisional. And that emptiness and provision is middle. So, these are three ways of viewing one reality. Because everything is coming and going, arising and perishing within time and space. It's empty.


And it's provisional. That is the meaning of the middle. And in the case of Nagarjuna, emptiness and provision is called two truths. But in Tendai, especially Tendai Chi, these are three truths. And he kind of, not a create, but he taught kind of a meditation based on those three truths. First, we should see all provisional beings are empty. So we should see emptiness of provisional beings. This is called Ku-Gan or Ku-Kan. Kan is contemplation or meditation.


Or Vipassana. So seeing each and everything we see is provisional beings. And yet we have a tendency to see this is a real thing. And I want this or I hate that. But to see emptiness of all beings is to be free, released from that kind of clinging or attachment. So first we have to see the emptiness of each and every provisional being. That is called Ku-Gan. In order to become free from our clinging to our idea. And next is Ke-Kan. That means we need to, how can I say, we should not cling to this emptiness.


Sometimes or usually, often, when we see emptiness of all beings, we cling to emptiness. And we forget the importance of each and every being in our daily lives. So we have to return from emptiness to provisional being. Without provisional being there is no such thing as emptiness. Emptiness doesn't really exist. Emptiness is the way provisional beings are. But when we think we see emptiness of all beings, that means we feel liberated to our idea or clinging or attachment, then we feel we are free and we can do anything we want. That is a kind of sickness of emptiness. Sickness caused by clinging to emptiness.


So we need to return from emptiness to provisional. This is called Ke-Kan. So we need to go from here to there and there to here. We have to return to provisional beings because that is the place we live, actually. And to see both ways at the same time is called Chu-Gan or Chu-Kan, as a middle. This one. This Kan means to see or to contemplate. Sometimes it is considered to be Ku.


And there it is considered to be Ke, this particular thing. And this particular thing is provisional and it has no self-nature. It's empty. That is what Nyo means. It's like this. And yet it is this, but it's not really this. It is like this. That is the meaning. So Nyo and Ze are contradicted. And Nyo and Ze as one word includes two sides. This three truths is a basic kind of structure of Chinese Buddhism. Not only Buddhism, probably Taoism also. You know, one thing in which two kinds of opposite things are included.


Like Yin and Yang. Yin and Yang working together. And Yin and Yang working as a whole is one reality. Same as you said, in the Sandokas, Nyo is spiritual source. Spiritual source. And Ze is branching stream. And there is another line that is the root and branch return to the source. Root and branch return. This source is Shu. So in Sandokas there are three things. Within this Shu, you know, basic foundation, source, spiritual source and branching stream are there.


So within one reality, two kinds of opposite power is working and make things happen and changing. That is a basic idea of Chinese Buddhism. Please. And that's the same idea expressed by the Honmatsu Kukyoto. Yes, yes. What is the translation of those kanji again? Which one? This one? Beginning, end. Kukyoto is ultimate. Tao is equal. Equal. Equal. But it's not equal really. I mean, that is what Dogen discussed. Or not discussed but said in the very beginning of Fushiku Hanpo. You know, Fushiku Hanpo is a part of Eihei Shingi in which Dogen described how to use Oryoki.


In the very beginning of Fushiku Hanpo he said, food and dharma are one and same. He said this Tao, one and equal. I translated it as one and equal, but Taigen said one and equal is strange. If it's equal, there must be two things. If it's one, it's equal. The English word equal can't be used. So, we use one and same. And yet, in Fushiku Hanpo, if you read it, he said this Tao is not a Tao of comparison and, say, impair or equal. But this Tao is Tao in the Shoto Togaku. That means, what is Shoto Togaku? Anuttara Samyak Sambodhi. Anuttara Samyak Sambodhi. Samyak means absolute equality. To see things really equal.


That is Anuttara means. Right? Anuttara Samyak or Samyak means. Inseparable? Inseparable or incomparable. Inseparable. Tosho Togaku. Shoto Togaku. I forget. I'm sorry. OK. Here we are. I started already to talk about Ten Rai Teachings. About this ten suchness. And, so I continue Ten Rai Teachings about this Shobo Jitso and ten suchness. This has something to do with these three truths. In Ten Rai, those ten suchness,


first one is, Nyo, Ze, So. According to Ten Rai Chi-I, he reads this in three ways. First one is, he changes the order of the words. Nyo, Ze, So is the order in the Lotus Sutra. But Ten Rai Chi-I reads, there are two more ways.


He just changes the order. Ze, So, Nyo. Chi-I. Chi-I is a person's name. The most important master in Ten Rai tradition. Chi-I. In Japanese, we pronounce this Chi-I. But in Chinese, Chinese pronunciation is Chi-I. He lived in the 6th century. Around the same time with Bodhidharma. Ze, So, Nyo. And another way is,


So, Nyo, Ze. Ze. He just changed the order of those three Chinese characters. This is the usual way to read the Lotus Sutra. So this is, Ze, So, Nyo. And, So, Nyo, Ze. And, Chi-I or Chi-Gi said, when we read this, Ze, So, Nyo, this shows the Ku, Kam. That means, this form is Nyo.


When we read in this order, it means this form is Nyo. And this Nyo means not necessarily, not always so. That means empty. And when we read this Nyo, Ze, So, in this case, this Nyo, Ze is an adjective modified as So. So, this means So as suchness. So as suchness. So that is nothing other than suchness. Right?


So when you wrote it in the translation, it could be form as suchness, nature as suchness, body as suchness. Yeah, that is what Dogen is doing in Shobo Genzo. I think following Chi-Gi's way of reading these three things, I'm confused now. So as Nyo, Ze is that third thing. And this second one is So, that is like this. That shows particularity or provisionality. It's not an absolute thing. And yet, as a form of this being, it is like this.


And in this case, this show is, or so, form is Nyo, Ze. This is kind of a very subtle way of reading things and interpretation in Chinese. We cannot translate it into English well. So I'm sorry. And I can't explain well in English, using my poor vocabulary. Could you say the first one again? Because the first one you started out saying So as suchness. But then I thought you said the third one was so as suchness. Yeah. Let's see. The so Nyo is one first, and this is second, and this is third.


According to Chi-Gi. This so, this form is Nyo, is the way we read this as a Kuukan, the contemplation of emptiness. So we see this so, this form as emptiness, or Nyo. And the second one is Can we translate? Kaku no gotoki so. The so or form that is like this particular thing. That is kei. You know, this so, form of this thing, is Nyo. And the third thing is Any so, this so is itself Nyo.


Does this make sense? The first one was in the middle on the board. Yes, this is fine. That's certainly my confusion. I'm sorry. Anyway, this is how Tendai Chi-Gi or Chi-Gi used this teaching from the Lotus Sutra on the true reality of all beings and the teaching of ten suchness. Another teaching in Tendai using this ten suchness is called Ichi-Nen-San-Zen. So this is another thing. Ichi-Nen-San-Zen


Ichi-Nen-San-Zen I hope there are books on Tendai teaching, but I cannot find an English book on Tendai teachings. It's very interesting. Ichi-Nen means one thought or soul. And it can also mean one moment at a time. And San-Zen means three thousands. This means each and everything at this moment includes three thousand thoughts. Three thousand... I don't know. These three thousands refer to...


There are ten Dharma worlds. The first six is the six realms of samsara. You know, hell, the realm of hungry ghost, animal, asura or fighting spirit, human beings, and heavenly beings. Those six. And Asura-vaka, Pratyekabuddha, Bodhisattva, and Buddha. Those are called ten worlds. And the first six are called samsara. And the next four are the realms or worlds of spiritual beings, or Bodhisattvas and... not Bodhisattvas, but... what do you call... holy people.


And this San-Zen means those intended teachings. Within each of those ten worlds, another nine is included. So within the hell, that is, hell from hell to world of Buddha is included. Even in the world of Buddha, hell is included. So this makes one hundred worlds. And each being in this one hundred worlds has ten suchness. That makes one thousand. And there are three kinds of... Another three kinds of seiken is world.


That is world of living beings. And it's shojo seiken. And second is world of five skandhas. And the third is world of... like an environment of living beings. Environment. Those three, I think that means the world of human beings in which we are living as human beings and thinking and evaluating things. But that is one level of this reality. Another is we are all just a collection of five skandhas as elements. And the third is, you know, all those things as human beings or living beings and five skandhas are taking place. That is called three worlds.


And this makes three thousand. This means each and every, all every beings in this entire dharma world is included within this one moment or one thought. This is a very basic teaching in Tendai. And I think it is important to understand Dogen. That means each and everything and all other things in this entire dharma world is one thing. Within smallest being, entire ten realms is included. Because everything is connected. And so this one thing and this entire things, beings, are really connected.


So when we pick up one thing, we pick up this entire network. So that is, I think what Dogen says, here is an example. When one person is sitting even for one moment, this entire universe becomes enlightenment. So one person's activity or action influences the entire dharma world. It came from this kind of idea. I hope I can explain it in a better way. But for now, this is my limitation. Yes? Is that somewhere in this text? No. It's from Tendai teaching. But I think it's important to understand what Dogen is writing in this. It's almost 10.30, I mean 11.30 or 10.30.


Oh, another thing. So this is the teaching in Chinese Tendai. And another thing to understand what Dogen tried to say is something to do with Japanese Tendai teaching. You know, Tendai Buddhism was transmitted from China to Japan by a Japanese master whose name is Saicho. He lived in the 9th century. And he founded a monastery on Mount Hiei, right near from the capital, Kyoto. And his school, Tendai, is one of the two most powerful Buddhist establishments from the 9th century until today, especially since the time of Dogen.


And Dogen became a Buddhist monk in his tradition, Japanese Tendai. And in Japanese Tendai, the teaching of Shōhō-jissō is kind of transformed from Chinese Tendai. In Chinese Tendai, Shōhō-jissō, as I translate it, is the true reality of all beings. So, all. Shōhō no jissō. And yet, in Japanese Tendai, people start to interpret this as Shōhō is jissō.


All beings. All beings is itself true reality. It's not a matter of true reality of all phenomenal beings. You know, all phenomenal beings is provisional, and it's always changing. So we cannot grasp, and we cannot rely on. So we need to see the reality of that concrete being which is always changing. Also, this dharmata, or true reality, is something which doesn't change. Which doesn't change, which is something changing. Like, as I said, like a human and humanity. Humanity doesn't change. But human beings is always changing. So this is a concrete being. And this is kind of a reality of those concrete beings.


So this is something abstract and universal. And these are particular beings. And that is how, you know, in the Lotus Sutra or Chinese Tendai, understand this expression, Shōhō is jissō. But in Japanese Tendai, they started to say, to think, beside all beings, all this concrete, each and every particular being, which is coming and going, arising and perishing, there is no such thing called true reality. That is kind of different between Chinese Tendai and Japanese Tendai. So in Japanese, they put a very strong emphasis on particularity, each and every being which is impermanent.


Therefore, everything is always changing. And it's not reliable. But beside that thing, there is no such reality. Does it make sense? It's not a matter of some abstract reality that is hidden within concrete reality, concrete beings. But these concrete beings, which are always changing and empty, is itself true reality. So we should not separate these two. And this is the same as Dōgen said about the Buddha nature. In the very beginning of Shōbō Genzo's Buddha nature, Dōgen quotes a very famous statement from the Nirvana Sutra,


that all living beings have Buddha nature. He reads this statement as all beings and entire beings are Buddha nature. That means Buddha nature is something which exists inside of each living being. But the way things are is Buddha nature. Therefore, each being is Buddha nature. And in the case of Shokuhō Jisō, Dōgen also reads this way, beside each and every being. There is no such thing called true reality. Please. When we talk about Buddha nature, or when we talk about true reality, my mind seems to try to envision some fixed concept, some theme.


And I think that probably has something to do with Western heritage of Greek thought. Where a chair was supposed to be an embodiment, what I'm sitting on, of some perfect chair, which a person or whatever got their hands on. But I think the relation between Shokuhō and Jisō is quite the same. You know, this is like an ide. Ide, this is a real thing. This cannot be perfect. This is always imperfect. And this is perfect and universal and doesn't change. It's like a concept. And this is a real thing. And we think, you know, real things, actual things are always changing and imperfect. We cannot rely on them. So we try to find something we can rely on which doesn't change. That is the way we try to search the truth.


But what Tendai and Dōgen is saying is, this is the only way, this is the only place we can live. There isn't anything outside of it. Right. Yes. Well, I think this is, these things, this point, from the later sutra and Tendai teachings, in Chinese and Japanese, is kind of a helpful information to when we read Dōgen's writings. Otherwise, I don't think we can understand what he's saying. Any questions? OK. Thank you.